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英文语法拉杂谈--情态动词

www.iselong.com 作者:kohtp

谈谈情态动词(Modal Verbs)(一)

我们常见的英文动词有:及物动词(Transtive Verbs)、不及物动词(Intranstive
Verbs)、助动词(Axiliary Verbs)、联系动词(Link Verbs /Copula)和情态动词(Modal
Verbs)。其他还有:非谓语动词,如:动词不定式、动名词。

这回我们就来谈谈情态动词(Modal Verbs 注意Modal 不是 Model 喔)。
* 情态动词也可称为"情态助动词 (Modal Auxiliaries)",因为它和基本助动词(be,
do, have)都属于助动词类。
* 情态动词和其他动词连用,可表示说话人的语气。
* 情态动词可表达建议、要求、可能和意愿等。
* 情态动词没有人称和数的变化。
* 常用的情态动词有:can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would
这九大情态动词;其他的还有ought to, need, dare 等。

其实我们这里谈的情态动词,它的特征用法,有许多方面和助动词是一样的(请参阅
《英文语法拉杂谈》助动词);但为了方便阅读,因此即使相同的部份,这里也同样列
出。

一、情态动词的变化:(情态动词could,动词 to work)

1.1 简单型(Simple):表示现在或将来的状态

 I could work (动词不可加 to ,如:to work。下同)
 you could work
 he could work
 she could work
 it could work
 we could work
 they could work

1.2 完成式型 (Perfect):表示过去的状态

 I could have worked (动词是 have + v-ed 过去分词。下同)
 you could have worked
 he could have worked
 she could have worked
 it could have worked
 we could have worked
 they could have worked

1.3 进行式型 (Continuous):表示现在或将来还在进行的状态

 I could be working (动词是be + v-ing 现在分词。下同)
 you could be working
 he could be working
 she could be working
 it could be working
 we could be working
 they could be working

1.4 完成进行式型 (Perfect Continuous):表示过去正在进行的状态

 I could have been working (动词是 have been + v-ing 现在分词。下同)
 you could have been working
 he could have been working
 she could have been working
 it could have been working
 we could have been working
 they could have been working

二、情态动词的疑问句:

只要将情态动词移到主语(Subject)的前面,句尾加上问号。这样就成了疑问句。

1. She can work.(主语she, 情态动词 can,动词 work)
  Can she work ? (这就是疑问句)

2. He would be working. (主语he, 情态动词 would,动词 be working)
  Would he be working ?

3. They should have worked. (主语they, 情态动词should, 动词have worked)
  Should they have worked ?

4. I could have been working. (主语 I, 情态动词 could, 动词 have been
working)
  Could I have been working ?

三、情态动词的否定句:

在情态动词的后面加上 not 就成了情太动词否定句。

1. She can work.
  She cannot work. (注意:can 和 not 须连在一起)(这就是否定句)

2. He would be working.
  He would not be working. (would not)

3. They should have worked.
   They should not have worked. (should not)

4. I could have been working.
   I could not have been working. (could not)

四、在口语中,否定情态动词的缩写法:

1. cannot ---- can't
2. could not ---- couldn't
3. might not ---- mightn't (很少用)
4. must not ---- mustn't
5. shall not ---- shan't (几乎没人用了)
6. should not ---- shouldn't
7. will not ---- won't (可不是 win't 喔!)
8. would not ---- wouldn't

五、情态动词的否定疑问句:

将否定情态动词移到主语的前面,就成了否定疑问句。

1. Can she not work ? 或 Can't she work ? (看出有什么不同吗?小心看看喔)

2. Would he not be working ? 或 Wouldn't he be working ?

3. Should they not have worked ? 或 Shouldn't they have worked ?

4. Could I not have been working ? 或 Couldn't I have been working ?

六、情态动词的反问句:

看看下面的例子就明白啦,呵呵。

1. She can work. 反问句:She can work, can't she ?

2. He would be working. 反问句:He would be working, wouldn't he ?

3. They should have worked. 反问句:They should have worked, shouldn't
they ?

4. I could have been working. 反问句:I could have been working, couldn't
I ?


就谈这些了,但我们还未进入正题哩,哎呀呀……

谈谈情态动词(Modal Verbs)(二)

上回在谈到情态动词的变化中,只举了以情态动词 could 为例子的变化。其他的情态
动词(would, should, might...)都可依此类推。

七、九大情态动词的时态关系:

1.  现在式 can -- 过去式 could
2.  现在式 may -- 过去式 might
3.  现在式 shall -- 过去式 should
4.  现在式 will -- 过去式 would
5.  现在式 must -- 过去式 must (其实must 和 ought 都是没有时态的)

八、情态动词的用法:表示"可能"或"预测"
  (Can,Could,Will,Would,Shall,Should,Must,Ought to)

8.1  can 和 could 用于表示"可能"或"预测":

1. He can't be at home. (否定句)
  他不可能在家。

2. Can the news be true ? (将情态动词 can 置于主语 the news 前就成疑问句)
  这消息可能是真的吗?

3. Anybody can make mistake. (只表示理论上的可能性)
  任何人都可能犯错误。

4. At that time we thought the story could not be true. (表示过去的可能性)
  那时我们认为所说的故事不可能是真的。

5. An accident can happen if you do this. (表示事情肯定会发生)
  如果你这样做,可能会发生意外。

8.2 may 和 might 用于表示"事实上的可能性"或"预测":

1. It may rain tomorrow. (表示可能会发生)
  明天可能会下雨。

2. It may snow later this afternoon. (表示预测)
  今天下午可能会下雪。

3. You might be right. (表示有可能)
  你可能是对的。

4. It is possible he may have called while we were out. (现在完成式型may
have called)
  当我们出门后,他有可能会打电话来。

5. Sam might have taken the money, but it seems unlikely. (过去完成式型
might have taken)
  钱可能会是Sam拿走的,但又不太像。

6. If you took some exercise, you might not be so fat. (might 用于条件句)
  要是你锻炼锻炼,可能不会这样胖。

7. Electric irons could be dangerous; they might give you a severe shock.
(这里的might表示可能性比may 小一些)
  电熨斗会有危险的,它可能使你受到严重的电击。

8.3 will 和 would 用于表示"预测"或"习惯性":

1. I think he will be all right now. (will be 表示一定会)
  我想他现在一定好了。

2. That would be his mother. (would be 表示肯定是)
  那肯定是他母亲。

3. He will sit there hour after hour looking at the river. (will 表示经常
的)
   他经常一连几个小时坐在那儿看着河水。

4. He would come to see me when he was in London. (would 表示习惯地)
   他在伦敦时,常来看望我。

8.4 shall 和 should 用于表示"必定":

1. I shall be rich one day. (shall be )
  总有一天我发达的。

2. That should be Sam and his mother. (should be)
  那准是Sam 和他的母亲。

8.5 must 用于表示"必定","必会":

1. This must be good for you. (must be 肯定)
  这肯定对你是有益的。

2. All mankind must die. (表示必然会发生的事)
   所有的人一定会死的。

3. Mustn't there be a mistake ? (mustn't 多用于疑问句)
   那肯定会有错误吗?

8.6 ought to 用于表示"想必会"(语气较must 弱):

1. They ought to be there by now.
  他们想必已到那儿了。

2. He ought to stop smoking.
   他最好不要抽烟了。


由于情态动词也是一个难缠的东东,写得好乱,真没办法 :-(

谈谈情态动词(Modal Verbs)(三)

九、情态动词的用法:表示"许可"、"请求"
  (Can, Could, Will, Would, Shall, Should, May, Might, Must)

9.1 can 和 could 用于表示"许可"、"请求":

1. Can I go with you ? (请求)
  我能跟你一起走吗?

2. Father said I could go to cinema. (表示过去的许可)
  爸爸说我可以去看电影。

3. Could I ask you something ? (请求,用 could 比 can 更婉转)
  我可以问你一件事吗?

4. You can come in. (表示允许,常见于口语)
  你可以进来。

5. You cannot smoke in the meeting room. (cannot 表示"禁止")
  会议室里不许吸烟。

6. Can't you do it now ? (表示反问)
  你不能现在做吗?

9.2 will 和 would 用于表示"请求"

1. Will you kindly tell me the way to the post office ? (表示客气请求)
  请问到邮局怎么走?

2. Would you give me your address ? (用 would 比 will 表示更客气)
  请你告诉我你的地址,好吗?

9.3 shall 和 should 用于第一人称,表示征求对方的意见

1. Shall we talk?
  我们谈谈好吗?

2. What should we do next ? (用should 比 shall 表示更客气)
  下一步我们该怎么做?

3. Shall he come to see you ? (用于第三人称疑问句)
  要不要他来看你?

9.4 may 和 might 用于表示"许可"(口语中多用 can )

1. You may take a walk. (表示给予许可)
  你可以散散步。

2. You might read the story for me. (比may更婉转)
  是否请给我读一读这故事。

3. May I make a suggestion ?
   我可以提个建议吗?

4. Might I take a look of your work ?
  我看看您的大作行吗?

5. Students may not make noise in the library. (may not 表示不许可或禁止)
  学生不得在图书馆里吵闹。

6. If I may say so, you are not right. (用于条件句,表示请求)
  你是不对的,如果我可以这么说的话。

9.5 must 用于表示"禁止","不准":

1. Cars must not be parked here. (must not表示不许可)
  此地不准停车。

2. All of you mustn't fishing in the pool. (must not 语气方面比 may not 更
强)
  你们不准在池里钓鱼。


各位看官,看完给个意见吧,may you?

谈谈情态动词(Modal Verbs)(四)

十、情态动词的用法:表示“应该”、“必须”
  (Shall, Should, May, Might, Must, Ought to)

10.1 Shall 和 Should 用于表示“必须”:

1. Each member shall wear a name card. (表示规定)
  每一个会员必须配带名卡。

2. I should answer his letter as soon as possible. (表示应该)
  我应该尽快给他回信。

3. You shouldn't judge a man always by the clothes. (shouldn't “不应该”含
有劝告的意思)
  你不应该总是以貌取人。

4. The rules shall take effect on Jan. 1st. (shall 用于规章等,表示义务和
规定)
  新规则于一月一日起生效。

10.2 May 和 Might 用于表示“应该"(多用于法律等条文,一般上多用 shall ):

1. Payment may be paid by check. (表示规定)
  应以支票付款。

2. You might ask before you use my computer. (might表示应该)
  你应该先问过再使用我的电脑。

10.3 Must 用于表示“必须”、“务必”:

1. You must keep the place clean. (务必)
  你务必保持地方干净。

2. We must obey orders. (表示有义务)
  我们必须服从命令。

3. Must I pay now ? (用于疑问句) (如回答不必时,需用 needn't 或 don't have
to)
  我现在就得付款吗?

10.4 Ought to 用于表示“应该”(强调客观上):(大多情况可用 should 代替)

1. You ought to go to see the doctor. (ought to 的语气比must 弱)
  你应该去看看医生。

2. You oughtn't (ought not) to smoke so much. (oughtn't 用于否定句)
  你不应该抽这么多烟。

3. Ought you to smoke so much? (用于疑问句)
  你应该抽这么多烟吗?


不知怎的,总觉得有点意兴阑珊。再见吧。

谈谈情态动词(Modal Verbs)(五)

十一、 情态动词的用法:表示“意图”、“打算”
(will, would, shall, should)

11.1 will 和 would 用于表示某种意图:

1. I'll will call you as soon as possible. (will 主要用于第一人称)
  我会尽快打电话给你。

2. Will you accept this invitation ? (用would 则表示得客气)
   你愿意接受这邀请吗?

3. Who will do the job ? (用于条件句,可用于各种人称)
   谁愿意做这事?

4. We won't (will not) stay here too long. (will not 表示不愿)
  我们不愿呆在这里太久。

11.2 shall 和 should 用于表示说话人的意图:

1. We shan't (shall not) to if it rains. (shall not 也可用 will not)
  如果下雨,我们就不打算走了。

2. I shan't go with you. (shall 只用在第一人称)
  我不打算和你一同走。

十二、 情态动词的用法:表示“意愿”
   (will, would, shall, should)

12.1 will 和 would :

1. She will do it if you ask her. (表示主语的意愿)
   如果你问她,她会做的。

2. Would you have another cup of tea ? (用 would 比 will 客气)
   你想再来一杯茶吗?

3. Will you have some cookies ? (will 用于疑问句,表示问人是否愿意)
  你想吃些烤饼吗?

4. If he will he can do it. (will 用于条件句,用于第二、三人称)
  如果他愿意,他会做的。

5. Would you excuse me ? (would 表示婉转语气)
  你能原谅我吗?

12.2 shall 和 should :

1. He shall get his allowance. (注意是he shall, 表示说话人的意愿)
   他会拿到他的津贴的。

2. You should sit here as long as you like.
   只要你乐意,坐多久能行。

3. Shall you go to school with me ? (疑问句中,表示问对方的意愿)
   你愿意和我一起到学校去吗?

十三、情态动词的用法:表示“决心”
   (will, would, shall, would)

13.1  will 和 would :

1. I will stop smoking. (will 表示主语 I 的决心。不能用 I'll)
   我决心戒烟了。

2. He will come whenever you say. (will 表示主语he 一定会做)
   你什么时候说,他一定会来的。

3. He would not let me try .
   他不肯让我去试。

4. If you will go, you may go at once. (用于条件句,用于第二、三人称)
   如果你非走不可,你可以马上就走。

13.2 shall 和 should :

1. You shall complete your lesson. (shall 表示说话人的决心。shall 须重读)
   你应该完成你的课程。

2. No one shall stop me. (shall 重读)
   任何人也不能阻止我。

3. You shall obey chairman. (shall 用于肯定句。shall 重读。只能用于第二、三
人称)
   我要你服从主席。


情态动词就谈这些了。看看自己也觉得写得不太满意,目前也只能是这样了。


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相关专题:语法杂谈
资料更新时间: 2003-6-28 15:12:00
资料标题:《英文语法拉杂谈--情态动词》
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资料编号:700
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