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英文名篇-论学习

www.iselong.com 作者:鱼化石

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Comments by 鱼化石:培根的名字,大家一定不陌生,其《论学习》一文也是脍炙人口
的名篇,无须多做介绍。倒是想介绍一下目前流传最广的中译版本的作者——王佐良。
阅读优秀的译文也是一种美的享受,精彩之作常为名家呕心沥血而成,令人难以释手,
如前日所贴《青春》一文即是,今日《论学习》一文亦是如此。

“读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻
辑修辞之学使人善辩;凡有所学,皆成性格。”这一段精彩的译文,相信大家都耳熟能
详。这不仅是因为培根的思想表达得深刻,更因为译者翻译得恰到好处,可谓字字珠
玑。通览整篇译文,字里行间无处不显露出大家风范,非一般捉笔者能为之。

王佐良,英国文学研究专家;浙江上虞人,1916年2月12日生。1929年至1934年在武昌
文华中学读书,后进清华大学。抗战后考取公费留英,于1947年秋赴牛津大学研究英国
文学。于1949年9月建国前夕回国,应聘到北京外国语学院任教授至今。现为北京外国
语学院顾问兼外国文学研究所所长,中国外语教学研究会副会长,中国英语教学研究会
会长,中国莎士比亚研究会副会长,中国作协理事,《外国文学》主编。主要著作有:
《英国十七世纪剧作家约翰·韦勃斯透的文学声誉》,《英国文学论文集》,《英国文
体学论文集》,《中外文学之间》,《论契合比较文学研究集》,《照澜集》。


附:英语专家王佐良谈英语学习方法

* 通过文化来学习语言,语言也会学得更好。

* 语言之有魅力,风格之值得研究,主要是因为后面有一个大的精神世界:但这两者又
必须艺术地融合在一起,因此语言表达力同思想洞察力又是互相促进的。

* 文体,风格的研究是有实际用途的,它可以使我们更深入地观察英语的性能,看到英
语的长处,短处,以及我们在学习英语时应该特别注意或警惕的地方。因为英语一方面
不难使用,一方面又在不小心或过分小心的使用者面前布满了陷阱。


OF STUDIES

Francis Bacon

Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use
for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse;
and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business.

For expert and execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but
the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best
form those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to
use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgement wholly by
their rules, is the humour of a scholar.

They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities
are like natural plants, that need proyning by study; and studies themselves
do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by
experience.

Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them;
for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and
above them, won by observation.

Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor
to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.

Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be
chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts;
others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and
with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and
extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less
important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books are,
like common distilled waters, flashy things.

Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.
And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he
confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had
need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not.

Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtile; natural
philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt
studia in morse.

Nay there is no stand or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by
fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises.
Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast;
gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a
man's wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in
demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin
again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him
study the schoolmen; for they are cymini sectores. If he be not apt to beat
over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let
him study the lawyers' cases. So every defect of the mind may have a
special receipt.


论学习

弗朗西斯·培根
王佐良 译

读书足以怡情,足以傅彩,足以长才。其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其傅彩也,最
见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。

练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一一判别枝节,然纵观统筹,全局策划,则舍好学深思者
莫属。读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态。

读书补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足,盖天生才干犹如自然花草,读书然后知如何
修剪移接,而书中所示,如不以经验范之,则又大而无当。

有一技之长者鄙读书,无知者羡读书,唯明智之士用读书,然书并不以用处告人,用书
之智不在书中,而在书外,全凭观察得之。

读书时不可存心诘难读者,不可尽信书上所言,亦不可只为寻章摘句,而应推敲细思。

书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只需读其部分者,有只须
大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。书亦可请人代读,取其所作
摘要,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏,淡而无味。

读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。因此不常做笔记者须记忆力特强,不常
讨论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。

读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑
修辞之学使人善辩;凡有所学,皆成性格。

人之才智但有滞碍,无不可读适当之书使之顺畅,一如身体百病,皆可借相宜之运动除
之。滚球利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,慢步利肠胃,骑术利头脑,诸如此类。如智力不集中,
可令读数学,盖演题需全神贯注,稍有分散即须重演;如不能辩异,可令读经院哲学,
盖是辈皆吹毛求疵之人;如不善求同,不善以一物阐证另一物,可令读律师之案卷。如
此头脑中凡有缺陷,皆有特效可医。



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相关专题:英文名篇
资料更新时间: 2003-7-7 21:05:00
资料标题:《英文名篇-论学习》
检索关键字:英语,英语学习
资料编号:699
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