1. I wish I were a bird.
2. We request that you be here tomorrow.
也许你会说:"哈哈，第一句的 I were 错了，应该是 I was；而第二句中的 you be
是什么东东呀？不是 you are, 也不是 you will be, 什么 you be?!"
其实上面的句子都是一种称为 Subjunctive 类型的句子。Subjunctive Mood 有的书译
1.1 现在时态(Simple Present): (右边为虚拟语气)
I work ---- I work
you work ---- you work
he works ---- he work (注意到了吗，是 work，不是 works)
she works ---- she work (不是 she works 喔）
it works ---- it work (同样不是 it works 喔)
we work ---- we work
they work ---- they work
1.2 现在进行时态(Present Continuous):(右边为虚拟语气）
I am working ---- I be working (注意用的是 be，怪怪的!)
you are working ---- you be working
he is working ---- he be working
she is working ---- she be working
it is working ---- it be working
we are working ---- we be working
they are woring ---- they be working
1.3 现在完成时态(Present Perfect):(右边为虚拟语气)
I have worked ---- I have worked
you have worked ---- you have worked
he has worked ----- he have worked (用的还是have喔)
she has worked ---- she have worked
it has worked ---- it have worked
we have worked ---- we have worked
they have worked ---- they have worked
1.4 现在完成进行时态(Present Perfect Continuous):(右边为虚拟语气)
I have been working ---- I have been working
you have been working ---- you have been working
he has been working ---- he have been working (是 he have, 不是 he has )
she has been working ---- she have been working
it has been working --- it have been working
we have been working ---- we have been working
they have been working ---- they have been working
2.1 过去时态(Simple Past):(右边为虚拟语气)
I worked ---- I worked
you worked ---- you worked
he worked ---- he worked
she worked ---- she worked
it worked ---- it worked
we worked ---- we worked
they worked ---- they worked
2.2 过去进行时态(Past Continuous):(右边为虚拟语气)
I was working ---- I were working （注意是 I were）
you were working ---- you were working
he was working ---- he were working (是 he were 喔)
she was working ---- she were working
it was working ---- it were working
we were working ---- we were working
they were working ---- they were working
2.3 过去完成时态(Past Perfect):(右边为虚拟语气)
I had worked ---- I had worked
you had worked ---- you had worked
he had worked ---- he had worked
she had worked ---- she had worked
it had worked ---- it had worked
we had worked ---- we had worked
they had worked ---- they had worked
(耶，全部都用 had ! )
2.4 过去完成进行时态(Past Perfect Continuous):(右边为虚拟语气)
I had been working ---- I had been working
you had been working ---- you had been working
he had been working ---- he had been working
she had been working ---- she had been working
it had been working ---- it had been working
we had been working ---- we had been working
they had been working ---- they had been working
(全部都是 had been 喔）
1. May you be happy. (注意那个 be ) 祝你幸福。
2. May you have a good time.
3. May the friendship between us last long,
4. Have a good journey! 祝你旅途愉快！
3.虚拟语气动词用一般现在时态(Simple Present)，如：work, be , go
4.否定形式的命令语气，可用助动词 do，加上 not。
1. Work !
2. Work harder !
3. Be more alert ! (虚拟语气动词 Be)
4. You go out !
5. Do not work so hard. (do not 表示否定的虚拟语气)
6. Don't be afraid. (口语中常用don't 代替 do not)
1. Would you be kind enough to show me the way to the post office.
2. It would be better for you not to stay up too late.(表示委婉)
1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I knew the answer to the question.
(wish, 动词过去式 knew)
2. I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year around.
3. I wish I were a bird.(wish, were)
4. When she was at the party,she wished she were at home.
5. Now that he is in China, he wishes he understood Chinese.
6. When we begin the trip, they will wish they were with us.
5.1.2 过去情况的虚拟，从句动词用"had + 过去分词"（时间上较前):
1. I wish (that可省略，下同)I hadn't wasted so much time.
2. He wishes he hadn't lost the chance.
3. We wished he had spoken to us.
(wished，had + spoken)(事实上他并没同我们讲)
4. I wish you had called earlier.
(wish, had + called)(事实上已迟了)
5. They will wish they had listened to us sooner.
(will wish,had + listened)(事实上并不如此)
could/might + 动词原形"(时间上较后):
1. I wish it would stop raining.(虚拟动词would+动词原形stop)
2. I wish you would be quiet.(would + be)
3. You wished she would arrive the next day.(would + arrive)
4. I wish she would change her mind.(would + change)
5. He will wish we would join him the following week.(would + join)
为了这个wish的部份，可花了我不少时间喔。I wish you would appreciate my work.
5.2 除了wish之外，下列各动词(如 suggest)的后面的虚拟语气宾语从句，其谓语用
"should + 动词原形"表示建议(suggest)、坚持(insist)等虚拟语气：
* suggest (建议), recommend (推荐), advise (劝告), propose (建议)
* insist (坚持), consent (允诺)
* decide (决定), order (命令)
* request (要求), demand (要求), desire (期望), ask (要求)
* maintain (主张), urge (催促)
1. I suggest that we (should 可省略,下同) start the meeting at once.
(suggest, should + start) (表示建议立即开会)
2. The doctor suggested that he (should ) try to lose his weight.
(suggested, should + try) (表示建议你应该减肥喔)
3. He insisted that all of us (should) be there on time by any mains.
(insisted, should + be) (表示坚持,无论如何都要准时到那儿。你再讲也没
4. He insisted that we (should) tell him the news.
(insisted, should + tell) (表示非要你告诉他不可)
5. He ordered that the students (should) wash the clothes every week by
(ordered, should + wash) (表示命令学生们每周自己洗衣服)
下列名词后的表语从句或同位语从句，也用"should + 动词原形" 表示虚拟语气：
* demand (要求), desire (请求),requirment (要求)
* advice (劝告), recommendation (建议),suggestion (建议)
* order (命令)
* necessity (必要地), preference (优先)
* proposal (计划), plan (计划), idea (办法)
1. The advice is that we (should 可省略，下同) leave at once.
(名词advice，should + leave) (表示加以劝告)
2. My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.
(idea, should + get) (表示做出主意)
3. I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
(proposal, should + hold) (表示做出计划)
句型：It is (或was) + 形容词(或过去分词) + that …… +should + 动词原
句子：It is natural that she should do so. (形容词natural, should+动词原
* natural (自然的), appropriate (适当的),advisable (合适的), preferable (更
可取的), better (更好的)
* necessary (必须的), important (重要的), imperative (急需的), urgent (急迫
的), essential (本质的), vital (必不可少的)
* probable (很可能的), possible (可能的)
* desirable (极好的)
* required (需要的), demanded (要求), requested (被请求的), desired (要求)
* suggested (建议), recommended (推荐)
* orderd (命令)
1. It is necessary that we (should 可省略,下同）have a walk now.
(necessary, should + have) (表示有需要去散步)
2.It was necessary that we (should) make everything ready ahead of time.
(necessary, should + make) (表示有必要事先做好准备)
3. It is required that nobody (should) smoke here.
(required, should + smoke) (表示要求不要在此抽烟)
4. It is important that every pupil (should) be able to understand the
rule of school.
(important, should + be) (表示重要的是学生都能了解校规)
5. It's important that we (should) take good care of the patient.
(important, should + take) (表示重要的是照顾好病人)
1. If time permits, we'll go fishing together.
1. If it had rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home.
* 这种句子一般由"从句"（Subordinate Clause)和"主句"(Main Clause)组成。如上
If it had rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home.
"If it had rained yesterday" 就是"从句"；"we would have stayed at home" 则
从句：if + 主语 + 动词的过去式(be 用 were) + ……
主句：主语 + would (should, could , might) + 动词原形 + ……
1. If I were you, I would go with him.
(从句 If I were you, 主句 I would go with him.)
2. If I were you, I should buy it.
3. If I had time, I would study French. (如果有时间，我会学习法文。）
4. If she knew English, she would not ask me for help. (如果她懂英文，她就
注意：如果动作在进行中，主句要用："主语 + would be + 进行式动词 + ……"
5. If they were here, he would be speaking to them now.
(从句用过去式动词were, 主句用 would be speaking)
从句：If + 主语 + had +过去完成式动词 + ……
主句：主语 + would (should, could, might) + have +过去完成式动词 +……
1. If you had studied harder last term, you could have passed exam.
(从句动词用had studied, 主句动词用have passed)
2. If you had taken my advice, you wouldn't have failed in the exam.
(从句动词用had taken, 主句动词用have failed)
3. If you had got up earlier, you could have caught the train.
(从句动词用had got up, 主句动词用 have caught)
4. If it had snowed, I would have skied in the park.
(从句动词用had snowed, 主句动词用 have skied)
注意：如果动作在进行中，主句要用："I主语 + would + have + 完成进行式动词
5. If they had been here, he would have been speaking to them.
(从句动词用had been, 主句动词用 have been speaking)
从句：If + 主语 + should (或were) + 动词原形 +……
主句：主语 + would (could, should, might) + 动词原形 +……
1. If it should rain, the crops would be saved.
(从句动词用should rain，主句动词用 be)
2. If he were to go fomorrow, he might tell you.
(从句动词用were to, 主句动词用 tell)
3. If he were here, I would give him the books.
(从句动词用 were, 主句动词用 give)
注意：如果动作在进行中，从句(不是主句喔)要用："If + 主语 + 过去进行式动词
4. If she were staying here now, I would let her ride my horse.
(从句动词用 were staying, 主句动词用 let)
8.4 从句的 If 有时可省略，那么从句中的动词(were, had, should)就得移到主语前
1. 原句：If she were younger, she would do it.
去If：Were she younger, she would do it. (把动词were移到主语she的前面)
2. 原句：If he had tried it, he could have done it.
去If：Had he tried it, he could have done it.(把had移到主语he的前面)
1. I could help you. (只有主句）
2. If I had time. (只有从句）
3. She should have come to the meeting. (只有主句)
4. If he had much more money. (只有从句)
If they had started the early morning yesterday, they would be here now.
If I were not to make a preparation for my experiment this afternoon, I
would have gone to see the film with you last night.
If we hadn't made adequate preparations, we shouldn't dare to do the
experiment next week.
If we shouldn't have an exam this afternoon, I would go shopping now.
9.1 用as if (或 as though 好象) 的状语从句，表示与事实相反：
1. He pretends as if he didn't know the thing at all, but in fact he knows
it very well.
2. The old man looked at the picture, he felt as though he had gone back
to time 20 years ago.
3. They talked and talked as if they would never meet again.
(would + 原形动词meet，表示与将来事实相反)
9.2 用 had hoped 表示原来希望做到而实际上未能实现的事情。
其宾语从句的谓语要用"would + 动词原形"：
1. I had hoped that she would go to the U.S. and study there, but she said
she liked to stay in China. 我原本希望她到美国去念书，但她说她喜欢留在中
9.3 用 without / but for / in the absence of 表示"要不是"、"如果没有"，表
1. Without air, nothing could live.
2. But for your assistance, we could not accomplish it.
3. In the absence of water and air, nothing could live.