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英文语法拉杂谈-虚拟语气

www.iselong.com 作者:kohtp

谈谈虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)(一)

如果你看到下列的句子,你会认为它们是正确的还是错的呢?

1. I wish I were a bird.
2. We request that you be here tomorrow.

也许你会说:"哈哈,第一句的 I were 错了,应该是 I was;而第二句中的 you be
是什么东东呀?不是 you are, 也不是 you will be, 什么 you be?!"

其实上面的句子都是一种称为 Subjunctive 类型的句子。Subjunctive Mood 有的书译
为"假设语气",虽不很贴切;但在相当大的程度上,告诉我们这种句子的特点。
Subjunctive Mood中文译作"虚拟语气",似乎不及"假设语气"那么容易明白。它是一种
动词形式,表示说话人的某种假设、愿望、怀疑、猜测、建议等含义。

基本上,虚拟语气可分为虚拟现在(Subjunctive Present)和虚拟过去(Subjunctive
Past)两种;但它们和时态(Tenses)上所指的现在时态(Present Tense)和过去时态
(Past Tense)是有所不同的。

一、虚拟现在(Subjunctive Present):

虚拟现在的句子,在任何时候都要用动词的原形(root form),就算是第三人称(he,
she, it)也是如此。如:

1.1 现在时态(Simple Present): (右边为虚拟语气)

 I work ---- I work
 you work ---- you work
 he works ---- he work (注意到了吗,是 work,不是 works)
 she works ---- she work (不是 she works 喔)
 it works ---- it work (同样不是 it works 喔)
 we work ---- we work
 they work ---- they work

1.2 现在进行时态(Present Continuous):(右边为虚拟语气)

 I am working ---- I be working (注意用的是 be,怪怪的!)
  you are working ---- you be working
 he is working ---- he be working
 she is working ---- she be working
 it is working ---- it be working
 we are working ---- we be working
 they are woring ---- they be working

1.3 现在完成时态(Present Perfect):(右边为虚拟语气)

 I have worked ---- I have worked
 you have worked ---- you have worked
 he has worked ----- he have worked (用的还是have喔)
 she has worked ---- she have worked
 it has worked ---- it have worked
 we have worked ---- we have worked
 they have worked ---- they have worked

1.4 现在完成进行时态(Present Perfect Continuous):(右边为虚拟语气)

 I have been working ---- I have been working
 you have been working ---- you have been working
 he has been working ---- he have been working (是 he have, 不是 he has )
 she has been working ---- she have been working
 it has been working --- it have been working
 we have been working ---- we have been working
 they have been working ---- they have been working


嘘,暂时休息一会儿。下回再谈虚拟过去的动词有什么不同。如何,你喜欢她吗?

谈谈虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)(二)

二、虚拟过去(Subjunctive Past)

虚拟过去的动词无论在什么情况之下都要用过去复数形式。如:动词 be,在虚拟过去
中要用 were。

2.1 过去时态(Simple Past):(右边为虚拟语气)

 I worked ---- I worked
 you worked ---- you worked
 he worked ---- he worked
 she worked ---- she worked
 it worked ---- it worked
 we worked ---- we worked
 they worked ---- they worked

2.2 过去进行时态(Past Continuous):(右边为虚拟语气)

 I was working ---- I were working (注意是 I were)
 you were working ---- you were working
 he was working ---- he were working (是 he were 喔)
 she was working ---- she were working
 it was working ---- it were working
 we were working ---- we were working
 they were working ---- they were working

2.3 过去完成时态(Past Perfect):(右边为虚拟语气)

 I had worked ---- I had worked
 you had worked ---- you had worked
 he had worked ---- he had worked
 she had worked ---- she had worked
 it had worked ---- it had worked
 we had worked ---- we had worked
 they had worked ---- they had worked
 (耶,全部都用 had ! )

2.4 过去完成进行时态(Past Perfect Continuous):(右边为虚拟语气)

 I had been working ---- I had been working
 you had been working ---- you had been working
 he had been working ---- he had been working
 she had been working ---- she had been working
 it had been working ---- it had been working
 we had been working ---- we had been working
 they had been working ---- they had been working
 (全部都是 had been 喔)


看来很简单,是吧?下回我们就要谈到她的本领了。再见了!

谈谈虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)(三)

虚拟语气在语法里算得上是个难点。让我们就从最简单的开始吧。

三、简单的祝愿和命令:

3.1 祝愿
 1. May you be happy. (注意那个 be ) 祝你幸福。
 2. May you have a good time.
 3. May the friendship between us last long,
 4. Have a good journey! 祝你旅途愉快!

3.2 命令
 注意:1.命令虚拟语气只能用在第二人称(you),而且通常省略主语(也就是you)。
    2.句子尾通常加上感叹号:!
    3.虚拟语气动词用一般现在时态(Simple Present),如:work, be , go
    4.否定形式的命令语气,可用助动词 do,加上 not。

 1. Work !
 2. Work harder !
 3. Be more alert ! (虚拟语气动词 Be)
 4. You go out !
 5. Do not work so hard. (do not 表示否定的虚拟语气)
 6. Don't be afraid. (口语中常用don't 代替 do not)

这回就谈这么多,不会嫌少吧。

谈谈虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)(四)

四、在现在时态句里,用情态动词(Modal Verb)的过去时态
  (could,might,should,would)表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼、委婉等:

1. Would you be kind enough to show me the way to the post office.
  (情态动词 would,表示客气有礼)

2. It would be better for you not to stay up too late.(表示委婉)

五、虚拟语气在宾语从句(Subordinate Clasue)中的用法:

5.1 在wish后的虚拟语气宾语从句(可省略它的that):
   表示:a.和现在的事实相反;
      b.和过去的事实相反;
      c.对将来的主观愿望。

5.1.1 现在情况的虚拟,从句用过去式或过去进行式(时间上是同时的):

 1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I knew the answer to the question.
   (wish, 动词过去式 knew)
   我希望知道这个答案。(事实上是不知道)

 2. I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year around.
   (wish, were)
   但愿我的家乡四季如春。(事实上不可能)

 3. I wish I were a bird.(wish, were)
   但愿我是只小鸟。(事实上不可能,难道是鸟人?呵呵)

 4. When she was at the party,she wished she were at home.
   (wished,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不在家)

 5. Now that he is in China, he wishes he understood Chinese.
   (wishes,过去虚拟动词understood)
   现在他在中国,他希望能懂得中文。(事实上并不懂)

 6. When we begin the trip, they will wish they were with us.
   (will wish,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不和我们在一起)

5.1.2 过去情况的虚拟,从句动词用"had + 过去分词"(时间上较前):

 1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I hadn't wasted so much time.
   我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。(事实上已浪费了)

 2. He wishes he hadn't lost the chance.
   他真希望没有失去机会。(其实已失去)

 3. We wished he had spoken to us.
   (wished,had + spoken)(事实上他并没同我们讲)

 4. I wish you had called earlier.
   (wish, had + called)(事实上已迟了)

 5. They will wish they had listened to us sooner.
   (will wish,had + listened)(事实上并不如此)

5.1.3 将来情况的虚拟(表示将来的主观愿望),从句动词用"would/should/
    could/might + 动词原形"(时间上较后):
    (请注意:主句和从句的主语不相同喔)

 1. I wish it would stop raining.(虚拟动词would+动词原形stop)
   我希望雨能停止。(事实上雨还在下着呢)

 2. I wish you would be quiet.(would + be)
   我希望你安静一些。(事实上那家伙还在吵着呢)

 3. You wished she would arrive the next day.(would + arrive)
   你希望她第二天会到。(事实上她还没到)

 4. I wish she would change her mind.(would + change)
   我希望她会改变主意。(呵呵,女孩子可没那么容易就改变主意喔)

 5. He will wish we would join him the following week.(would + join)
   (只是希望我们和他在一起,实际上还没在一起)


为了这个wish的部份,可花了我不少时间喔。I wish you would appreciate my work.
hi hi……

谈谈虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)(五)

5.2 除了wish之外,下列各动词(如 suggest)的后面的虚拟语气宾语从句,其谓语用

  "should + 动词原形"表示建议(suggest)、坚持(insist)等虚拟语气:

* suggest (建议), recommend (推荐), advise (劝告), propose (建议)
* insist (坚持), consent (允诺)
* decide (决定), order (命令)
* request (要求), demand (要求), desire (期望), ask (要求)
* maintain (主张), urge (催促)

1. I suggest that we (should 可省略,下同) start the meeting at once.
   (suggest, should + start) (表示建议立即开会)

2. The doctor suggested that he (should ) try to lose his weight.
    (suggested, should + try) (表示建议你应该减肥喔)

3. He insisted that all of us (should) be there on time by any mains.
    (insisted, should + be) (表示坚持,无论如何都要准时到那儿。你再讲也没
用哩!)

4. He insisted that we (should) tell him the news.
    (insisted, should + tell) (表示非要你告诉他不可)

5. He ordered that the students (should) wash the clothes every week by
themselves.
    (ordered, should + wash) (表示命令学生们每周自己洗衣服)


六、虚拟语气在表语从句、同位语从句中的用法:

下列名词后的表语从句或同位语从句,也用"should + 动词原形" 表示虚拟语气:

* demand (要求), desire (请求),requirment (要求)
* advice (劝告), recommendation (建议),suggestion (建议)
* order (命令)
* necessity (必要地), preference (优先)
* proposal (计划), plan (计划), idea (办法)

1. The advice is that we (should 可省略,下同) leave at once.
   (名词advice,should + leave) (表示加以劝告)

2. My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.
    (idea, should + get) (表示做出主意)

3. I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
    (proposal, should + hold) (表示做出计划)


虚拟语气之类的语法真是错综复杂,不是一时半刻就能弄清楚的。再会。

谈谈虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)(六)

七、虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法

  句型:It is (或was) + 形容词(或过去分词) + that …… +should + 动词原
形……
  句子:It is natural that she should do so. (形容词natural, should+动词原
形do)

常用的形容词:
* natural (自然的), appropriate (适当的),advisable (合适的), preferable (更
可取的), better (更好的)
* necessary (必须的), important (重要的), imperative (急需的), urgent (急迫
的), essential (本质的), vital (必不可少的)
* probable (很可能的), possible (可能的)
* desirable (极好的)

常用的过去分词(Past Participle):
* required (需要的), demanded (要求), requested (被请求的), desired (要求)
* suggested (建议), recommended (推荐)
* orderd (命令)

1. It is necessary that we (should 可省略,下同)have a walk now.
   (necessary, should + have) (表示有需要去散步)

2.It was necessary that we (should) make everything ready ahead of time.
   (necessary, should + make) (表示有必要事先做好准备)

3. It is required that nobody (should) smoke here.
   (required, should + smoke) (表示要求不要在此抽烟)

4. It is important that every pupil (should) be able to understand the
rule of school.
   (important, should + be) (表示重要的是学生都能了解校规)

  5. It's important that we (should) take good care of the patient.
   (important, should + take) (表示重要的是照顾好病人)


我们学习英文语法是为了在日常应用英语时能够更加得心应手。让我们一起学习,一起
进步吧。下回见!

谈谈虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)(七)

八、虚拟语气在条件从句(Protasis)中的用法:

条件从句有两类:(1)真实条件句;(2)虚拟条件句。
如果假设情况有可能发生的,就是"真实条件句"。如:
 1. If time permits, we'll go fishing together.
      (如果有时间的话,我们就一起去钓鱼。)

如果假设的情况与事实相反,则为"虚拟条件句"。如:
 1. If it had rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home.
  (如果昨天下雨的话,我们就会留在家里。)

这回我们要谈的就是关于"虚拟条件句"的一些句型。
* 这种句子一般由"从句"(Subordinate Clause)和"主句"(Main Clause)组成。如上
例:
 If it had rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home.
 "If it had rained yesterday" 就是"从句";"we would have stayed at home" 则
为"主句。

* 无论"从句"或"主句"的谓语都要用虚拟语气。它们所用的动词有三种时态
(Tenses),就是:
  现在时态、过去时态、将来时态。

* 句型:

8.1 与现在事实相反的假设(事情的发生都在同一时间内):

 从句:if + 主语 + 动词的过去式(be 用 were) + ……
 主句:主语 + would (should, could , might) + 动词原形 + ……

 1. If I were you, I would go with him.
    (从句 If I were you, 主句 I would go with him.)

 2. If I were you, I should buy it.
    (从句用过去式动词were,主句用动词原形 buy)

 3. If I had time, I would study French. (如果有时间,我会学习法文。)
   (从句用过去式动词had,主句用动词原形 study)

 4. If she knew English, she would not ask me for help. (如果她懂英文,她就
不必要我帮了。)
   (从句用过去式动词knew, 主句用动词原形ask)

 注意:如果动作在进行中,主句要用:"主语 + would be + 进行式动词 + ……"

 5. If they were here, he would be speaking to them now.
    (从句用过去式动词were, 主句用 would be speaking)

8.2 与过去事实相反的假设(假设从句的事实为过去的事):

 从句:If + 主语 + had +过去完成式动词 + ……
 主句:主语 + would (should, could, might) + have +过去完成式动词 +……

 1. If you had studied harder last term, you could have passed exam.
   (从句动词用had studied, 主句动词用have passed)
   如果你在上个学期用功一些,你就会在考试中过关了。

 2. If you had taken my advice, you wouldn't have failed in the exam.
      (从句动词用had taken, 主句动词用have failed)
      如果你当时听从我的劝告的话,你就不会在考试中失败了。

 3. If you had got up earlier, you could have caught the train.
      (从句动词用had got up, 主句动词用 have caught)
      如果你起身得早一点,你就会赶得上火车了。

 4. If it had snowed, I would have skied in the park.
      (从句动词用had snowed, 主句动词用 have skied)
         如果下雪的话,我就可在公园里滑雪了。


 注意:如果动作在进行中,主句要用:"I主语 + would + have + 完成进行式动词
+……

 5. If they had been here, he would have been speaking to them.
      (从句动词用had been, 主句动词用 have been speaking)

8.3 与将来的事实可能相反(对将来的事实实现的可能性不大):

   从句:If + 主语 + should (或were) + 动词原形 +……
   主句:主语 + would (could, should, might) + 动词原形 +……

 1. If it should rain, the crops would be saved.
      (从句动词用should rain,主句动词用 be)
      如果天下雨,庄稼可能就收获了。

 2. If he were to go fomorrow, he might tell you.
          (从句动词用were to, 主句动词用 tell)
      如果明天他走的话,他可能会告诉你。

 3. If he were here, I would give him the books.
         (从句动词用 were, 主句动词用 give)
   如果他在这儿,我可能会把书给他。


 注意:如果动作在进行中,从句(不是主句喔)要用:"If + 主语 + 过去进行式动词
+……"

 4. If she were staying here now, I would let her ride my horse.
   (从句动词用 were staying, 主句动词用 let)
   如果她现在留在这儿,我可能会让她骑我的马。

8.4 从句的 If 有时可省略,那么从句中的动词(were, had, should)就得移到主语前
面:

 1. 原句:If she were younger, she would do it.
   去If:Were she younger, she would do it. (把动词were移到主语she的前面)

 2. 原句:If he had tried it, he could have done it.
   去If:Had he tried it, he could have done it.(把had移到主语he的前面)

8.5 有时虚拟条件句的从句或主句都可以省略其中一个:

 1. I could help you. (只有主句)

 2. If I had time. (只有从句)

 3. She should have come to the meeting. (只有主句)

 4. If he had much more money. (只有从句)

8.6 有时虚拟条件句的从句和主句地动词动作时态会不一致:

 8.6.1 从句表示过去,主句表示将来:

 If they had started the early morning yesterday, they would be here now.

 8.6.2 从句表示将来,主句表示过去:

 If I were not to make a preparation for my experiment this afternoon, I
would have gone to see the film with you last night.

 8.6.3 从句表示过去,主句表示将来:

 If we hadn't made adequate preparations, we shouldn't dare to do the
experiment next week.

 8.6.4 从句表示将来,主句表示现在:

 If we shouldn't have an exam this afternoon, I would go shopping now.


你们在学习中有什么心得,欢迎告诉我:peng2100315@sina.com 再会!

谈谈虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)(八)

九、其他虚拟语气在句子中的应用:

9.1 用as if (或 as though 好象) 的状语从句,表示与事实相反:

 1. He pretends as if he didn't know the thing at all, but in fact he knows
it very well.
   (用过去式表示与现在事实相反的假设)
   他假装好象完全不懂那事,其实他对那事非常了解。

 2. The old man looked at the picture, he felt as though he had gone back
to time 20 years ago.
    (用过去完成式表示与过去相反的事实)
   那老人看着照片,他觉得仿佛回到20年前的时光。

 3. They talked and talked as if they would never meet again.
    (would + 原形动词meet,表示与将来事实相反)
   他们谈了又谈,仿佛他们不会再相见的样子。

9.2 用 had hoped 表示原来希望做到而实际上未能实现的事情。
   其宾语从句的谓语要用"would + 动词原形":

 1. I had hoped that she would go to the U.S. and study there, but she said
she liked to stay in China. 我原本希望她到美国去念书,但她说她喜欢留在中
国。

9.3 用 without / but for / in the absence of 表示"要不是"、"如果没有",表
示条件虚拟句:

 1. Without air, nothing could live.
    要是没有空气,什么也不能生存。

 2. But for your assistance, we could not accomplish it.
    要不是你的帮忙,我们是难有成就的。

 3. In the absence of water and air, nothing could live.
  如果没有水和空气,什么也不能生存。


虚拟语气大致上就谈这些了。再见。


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相关专题:语法杂谈
资料更新时间: 2003-6-28 15:12:00
资料标题:《英文语法拉杂谈-虚拟语气》
检索关键字:英语,英语学习
资料编号:696
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