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英文语法拉杂谈--分词

www.iselong.com 作者:kohtp

谈谈分词(PARTICIPLE)(一)

大家都知道英文的动词(verb)可不像中文那般单纯。比如说"帮助"一词,虽可做动词,
也可做名词用;可是就没有时间性。而英文动词的变化可就多了,它可变成名词、形容
词、副词等,而且还有所谓"Tenses"(时态)。比如"help",就有下列各种时态:

Simple Present 现在时态 -- help, helps
Simple Past  过去时态 -- helped
Simple Future 将来时态 -- shall help, will help ...

Present Continuous 现在进行时态 -- be helping
Present Perfect  现在完成时态 -- have helped, has helped...
Present Perfect Continuous 现在完成进行时态 -- have been helped...

Past Continuous 过去进行时态 -- was helping...
Past Perfect  过去完成时态 -- had helped...
Past Perfect Continuous 过去完成进行时态 -- had been helping...

Future Continuous 将来进行时态 -- shall be helping...
Future Perfect  将来完成时态 -- shall have helped...
Future Perfect Continuous 将来完成进行时态 -- shall have been helping...

Present Participle 现在式分词 -- helping
Past Participle  过去式分词 -- helped
Perfect Participle 完成式分词 -- having helped...

呵呵,单单一个动词就就上面那么多的时态变化,英文真伟大!且慢,上面所举的那个
help,看来只有下列几种"变形"而已(你知道吗,英文是一种"变形语"哟!汉语则是"
分析语"):

help, helping, helped

别高兴得太早啦,其实有好多动词它的Past和Perfect时态的拼写法就不太相同,如:

write: wrote(Past), written(Perfect)
sing: sang(Past),  sung(Perfect)

而有些动词则"始终如一",各种时态(除了各类进行式)都是一样的拼写,如:

cut, hit, hurt, let, put, read, shut ...

上面所谈都是一些动词的基础知识(要是详细谈起来又是一大篇呢!)。现在言归正传,
我们所要谈的是"分词"。基本上分词分为下列两种(第三种的Perfect Participle拼入
Past Participle):

1. 现在式分词(Present Participle)
2. 过去式分词(Past Participle)

注意:过去式分词所用的动词都属于"完成时态"(Perfect)。

好了,这回就谈到这里。下回我们就会谈到分词的各种用法,它和动名词(Gerund)一
样,也是本领高强的高手呢!

谈谈分词(Participle)(二)

让我们先来看看下列的句子:

1. Mounting(骑上) his horse, the bandit(土匪) rode off.
2. A soldier, wounded(受伤) in the Great War, came limping(一跛一跛的) by.

第一个句子中,mounting修饰名词bandit,因此是个形容词(Adjective);但它还带有
宾语(Object)horse,因此含有动词的意味。这就是分词的特征。
第二个句子中,wounded也有动词和形容词的特征。这个过去分词还有被动的意思。

现在分词(Present Participle, 如mounting)和动名词(Gerund)一样,都是在动词尾加
上ing构成;而过去分词(Past Participle,如 wounded)则是在动词尾加上 ed, en,
d, t 所构成。

一、用分词作为定语(Attributive)/形容词(Adjective)

1.1 分词放在被修饰的名词之前

1. That's an interesting story. (现在分词interesting, 名词story)
2. I hear a barking dog. (barking, dog)
3. I have often seen falling stars. (falling, stars)
4. There is great danger in approaching(靠近) a wounded tiger. (过去分词
wounded, 名词tiger)
5. A burnt child dreads(惧怕) the fire. (burnt, child)

1.2 如果是分词词组,则放在被修饰的名词之后

1. The boy hurt by the car was sent to the hospital immediately. (名词boy,
分词词组hurt by the car)

1.3 如果被修饰的名词是 something, anything, everything, nothing 等,分词也
放在它们的后面

1. There is nothing interesting. (名词nothing, 分词interesting)
2. I felt something crawling up my leg. (something, crawling)

1.4 如何分辨作为定词的分词或动名词

1. 分词是"有动词性的形容词",如: I can hear him singing a song.
2. 动名词是"有动词性的名词",如: I do not like his singing.
3. 分词和名词间有"主谓关系",  如:a swimming girl  (游泳的女孩)(你可说
:女孩游泳)
4. 动名词和名词间没有"主谓关系",如:a swimming pool(游泳池)(但你不能说:
水池游泳)


这一餐就这么多吧,不好一餐吃得太多,提妨消化不良喔!haha...hihi...hoho...

谈谈分词(Participle)(三)

三、用分词作为状语(Adverbial Modifier)

3.1 用作状语的分词和逻辑主语是"主动关系"。表示动作和谓语的动作同时发生。

 1. David was lying in bed crying. (逻辑主语David, 分词crying)
 2. We walked along the banks singing merrily.. (逻辑主语we, 分词singing)

3.2 现在分词表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前,要用现在分词完成式(Present
Perfect Participle)

 1. Having written the letter, I went out to post it. (现在完成式分词
having written)
 2. Having already seen the film twice, she didn't want to go to the
cinema. (having seen)

3.3 用作状语的分词和逻辑主语有"被动关系",要用过去分词(Past Participle)

 1. We went home exhausted(疲惫地). (逻辑主语we, 过去分词exhausted)
 2. Encouraged by my teacher, I decided to work hard. (逻辑主语 I,过去分
词encouraged)

3.4 用作状语的分词和逻辑主语有"被动关系",也可用被动式的现在分词(having
been + v-ed)

 1. Having been invited to speak, I'll start making preparations tomorrow.
(逻辑主语 I, 被动式现在分词having been invited)

3.5  有的分词在句子中没有逻辑主语,这类特别分词有:
 regarding 关于,barring 除……以外,concerning 关于,granting /granted
(that) 假定、即使,presuming 假定,admitting (that) 承认, considering考虑
到,assuming 假设,seeing that 考虑 到,supposing (that) 假定,given (that)
考虑到、如果……

 1. He did poorly in his examinations, considering how hard he had atudied
for them.
 2. Granted that he has enough money to buy the house, it doesn't mean
he's going to do so.
 3. He asked me questions concerning my health.

 还有分词词组:

 taking...into consideration 考虑到,judging by /from 从……判断,talking
about 说到……,speaking of 说到……,looking at 考虑到、着眼于,generally
speaking 一般说来,allowing for 考虑到……

 1. Generally speaking, boys are more interested in such activities that
girls.
 2. Allowing for the deficiencies(不足), the show is a success.


回头看看上面的东西,连我都觉得枯燥得难以卒读也,唉!下回弄一些简易一些的吧。

谈谈分词(Participle)(四)

上回谈到用分词作为状语,谈得比较深入。下面提供几个比较常用的句子以供参考:

1. Being a student, she likes to help others. (being 作 student 的状语)
2. Wearing a new pair of glasses, she can read easily. (wearing 作 glasses
的状语)
3. She is there waiting for us. (状语waiting,逻辑主语 she)
4. Told by the teacher, she knew she was wrong. (分词 told 用过去式分词表
示被动)

四、用分词作表语(Predicative)

1.  The game is interesting. (interesting )
2.  They are interested in model car. (interested)
3.  The vase is broken. (broken)
4.  The rice is cooked. (cooked)

五、用分词作宾语补语(Objective Complement)

 用作宾语补语的分词常配合下列的动词:
see, watch, hear, set, keep, find, have,get, meet...

1. I saw him walking in the street. (动词saw, 分词walking)
2. He kept water boiling. (kept, boiling)
3. I met him coming down the street. (met, coming)
4. I heard them singing in the classroom. (heard, singing)
5. We found the baby crying. (found, crying)

六、"have + ... + v-ed" 表示过去分词的动作非主语所属

1. I have my hair cut. (过去分词 cut 的主语不是 I )
2. The girl has her television repaired. (不是由女孩修理电视机)
3. We have our house painted. (油漆房屋的可不是我们)


就谈到此。这回简单明了,不会头晕了吧?呵呵。

谈谈分词(Participle)(五)

七、分词的否定形式(not + v-ing)、(not + having + v-ed)

1. Not knowing what to do next, she stopped to wait.
2. Not having finished the homework, the pupil doesn't dare to go to
school.

八、 分词的被动形式:表示分词的动作和被修饰的名词之间的关系是被动的。

1. The bridge being built will be completed next year. (bridge being built)


分词基本上就谈这些。下回我们来谈谈关于 Subjunctive,不知你认识她吗?什么?不
认识。那我就介绍让你认识吧,呵呵呵呵……


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相关专题:语法杂谈
资料更新时间: 2003-6-28 15:12:00
资料标题:《英文语法拉杂谈--分词》
检索关键字:英语,英语学习
资料编号:693
资料来源:不详
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