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英文语法拉杂谈--动名词

www.iselong.com 作者:kohtp

谈谈动名词(GERUND)

你听过英文语法有动词(verb)、名词(noun);但你听过有动名词(gerund)吗?

在还没谈动名词之前,让我们先看看下面的句子:

1. The girl is singing a song.
2. The girl singing now is my sister.
3. Singing is one of her hobbies(爱好).

三个句子中都有singing。第一个句子的singing是常见的现在进行式(Present
Continuous),是说眼下正在做什么;第二个句子的singing是现在分词(Present
Participle),它把sing这个动词转为形容词,但仍有动词的成份(哈哈,这么一说,
要把你搞晕了吧 :-) 。关于分词,以后有空再谈吧,OK?)。好戏在后头,你看看第
三个句子的singing到底是什么东东呀?原来就是我们的主角动名词(Gerund)了!你
看,sing原本是个动词,可是现在它加上ing后,看来竟像是一个名词了。怎么,好玩
吧?

因此记住,不要以为一个动词加上ing后都是现在进行式呀!动名词可分为两大类:

一、名词性的动名词(Nominal Gerund)

 Nominal Gerund 可以加上定冠词(Definite article,如 the)或不定冠词
(Indefinite article,如 a, an),其他可加在动名词前的还有如:my, this, some,
any, all, no 等等。举例如下:

1. The mellow(愉快地) singing of the birds announces the coming of spring.
   (singing前加定冠词 the及形容词mellow;coming 前加 the)

2. We knew the robber was near when we heard a faint rustling(沙沙声) in
the bushes.
  (rustling 前加不定冠词a及形容词 faint)

从上面的例子可看出如何将一个动词转成名词;但它和真正的名词还是有区别的,那
就是没有单数或复数之分。不过,有一些动名词是可以变成真正名词的喔,如:

saying, writing, opening, painting, cutting, heading, feeling, being,
saving, surrounding, crossing, misunderstanding 等等。它们都可以有复数的喔,
方法就是在它们的后面加个s,如:paintings。

二、动词性的动名词(Verbal Gerund)

 看看下面的句子:

 Carelessly writing essays annoys the teacher.

上面的句子里的writing是动名词,但前面有副词carelessly(粗心地),后面又有受
词(Object) essays。因此writing就有动词的特征。

注意:Verbal Gerund 这类动名词的前面可不能加上任何冠词(the, a, an ...)喔。

好,今天就谈到这里,更多关于动名词的事下回再谈。如果诸位不怕头晕的,请再来试
试,嘿嘿!

谈谈动名词(Gerund)(二)

动名词的功能与用法

一、在句子中用作主语(Subject)或主语的补语(Subject Complement):

1.1 作主语

 1. Listening to music gives me pleasure. (主语Listening )
 2. Running is good exercise. (主语running)
 3. Walking to school is a good idea. (主语walking)

1.2  作主语的补语

 1. My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (补语sleeping)
 2. Seeing is believing. (主语seeing, 补语believing)

1.3 主语置于句尾

 1.3.1 用 It + be + ... +v-ing 句型

  1. It is fun speaking English.
  2. It is of great importance fighting against pollution(污染).

 1.3.2 用 It is 后接 no use. no good, fun 等的句型

  1. It is no use learning theory without practice.
  2. It is no fun being lost in rain.

 1.3.3 用 It is 后接 useless, nice, good, interesting, worthwhile 等的句型

  1. It is worthwhile taking this into consideration.

 1.3.4 用 There + be + no + v-ing 的句型

  1. There is no joking about such matters.
  2. There is no getting along with him. (简直无法与他相处)


如何?感到头晕了吗?不怕的再来吧。再见。

谈谈动名词(Gerund)(三)

二、动名词也可以作宾语(Object)

2.1 作动词/动词短语的宾语(置于动词或动词短语的后面)

 1. I cannot help laughing. (我禁不住笑了起来)(宾语laughing)
 2. You should avoid quarrelling with your sister. (宾语quarrelling)
 3. You should practice speaking English more. (宾语speaking)

 注意:上面三个句子中的动词:help, avoid, practice 只能用动名词作宾语。这类
动词还有:
  dislike 厌恶 admit 接受 repent 后悔 acknowledge 承认
  enjoy 享受  escape避免 deny 否认  postpone 延迟
  resent 怨恨 mind 介意  miss 错过  risk 冒风险
  finish 完成 avoid 避免 delay 耽误  consider 认为
  fancy 想象  excuse 原谅 include 包括 imagine 想象
  resist 抵制 suggest 建议 ……
  还有短语类:
  keep (on)继续 don't mind 不介意 cannot help 不禁 give up 放弃
  put off 延迟 leave off 停止  burst out 闯出 ……

 再请注意:有一些动词除了可接动名词外,也可接不定词(infinitive)。例子如下:

  1. I prefer living in an apartment. (动词prefer接动名词 living)
  2. I prefer to live in an apartment. (动词prefer接不定词 to live)

  像上面两个句子的意思没什么不同。如 prefer 这一类的动词还有:

  allow  deserve  neglect  attempt
  fear  omit    begin   hate
  permit bother   intend  cease
  like  recommend continue love
  start  stop    forget  regret
  propose try    continue remember
  need ……

  其实如hate, love, like之类动词,接动名词和接不定词的句子,意思是会有些不
同的,这就留给大家去研究吧,hihi……

2.2 作介词(Preposition)的宾语(Object)

 1. I'm sorry for giving you so much trouble. (介词for,宾语giving)
 2. The book is worth reading. (介词worth, 宾语reading)
 3. I reached him by calling his office. (介词by, 宾语calling)
 4. The police arrested(逮捕)him for speeding. (介词for, 宾语speeding)

 注意:在下列的句子结构中,介词 in 被省略掉:

 1. She is busy (in) correcting her exercises.
 2. He spent two hours (in) reading book.
 3. There is no use (in) talking with him now.
 4. Is it any good (in) taking cold water baths?

2.3  作"名词+介词"的宾语

 请看下列的句子:

 1. I have the pleasure of speaking to the famous author. (pleasure of + 宾
语speaking)
 2. He takes a great interest in studying languages. (interest in + 宾语
studying)

 这一类"名词+介词"的还有:

 danger of  fear of    objection to
 delight to  habit of    opportunity for /of
 excuse for  experience in love in
 reason for  ……


好了,好了,看到这里,你是不是需要一点风油呢?呵呵!Gerund还没谈完呢,再会
吧。

谈谈动名词(Gerund)(四)

三、句子中动名词的逻辑主语(Implied Subject)

什么是动名词的逻辑主语呢?在句子中,除了原有的主语之外,属于动名词的"主语
",也就称为"逻辑主语",一般位于动名词的前面。

3.1 在动名词前加"物主代词(如:my, his...)"或"名词所有格(如:Mary's,
Dog's...)"

 1. His coming here helped us a lot. (主语/逻辑主语his, 动名词coming)
 2. Tom's escaping from the prison made trouble for the jailer.(主语/逻辑主
语Tom,动名词escaping)

3.2 作宾语(Object)的动名词有自己的逻辑主语时,在动名词前加"物主代词"或"名
词所有格"

 1. Do you mind my smoking in the romm? (逻辑主语my, 动名词smoking)
 2. He insisted on Mary's staying there. (逻辑主语Mary, 动名词staying)

 注意:作为逻辑主语的名词/代词为无生命时,则用通格(of the):

 1. I cannot say there is no fear of the news spreading among intimate
friends. (逻辑主语news)

3.3 在下列情况中,不能使用所有格:

 3.3.1 代词为 all, both, each, few, several, some, this 等作为逻辑主语时:

   1. I remember all of them saying it .

 3.3.2 数词、名词化形容词(如 the three, the old...)作逻辑主语时:

    1. In spite of the three telling the same story, I could not believe
it.

 3.3.3 结构中的逻辑主语是名子或短语,或受从句或短语修饰时:

    1. Is there any chance of the people in the back of the room talking
a little louder?


真是烦死人了!还好,"动名词"最难的一关要算是"逻辑主语"了。如果你闯过后,接下
来的就轻松得多了。哈哈……

谈谈动名词(Gerund)(五)

四、动名词的语态

4.1 被动式(being + v-ed)

 当动名词的逻辑主语所表示的是动作的对象时,动名词要用被动语态。

 1. He dislikes being interrupted(被打岔) in his speech.
 2. They couldn't stand being treated(被对待) like that.

4.2 完成式 (having + v-ed)

 动名词的动作发生在谓语动词之前,要用完成式。

 1. We regret having been unable to inform you of the meeting.
 2. The students' having done(完成) the work so well made us very happy.

4.3 完成式的被动语态 (having been + v-ed)

 1. I heard of his having been chosen(被选为) to be the coach of the team.
 2. Some of our customers complained of having been treated(被对待)
rudely.

4.4 在动词 need, want, require, deserve 之后的动名词(作为宾语),要用主动
语态来表示被动的意思。

 1. The flowers in the garden want watering(需要浇水).
 2. That's one of those questions that really don't need answering(不需回
答).

五、作定语 (Attribute)

动名词放在所修饰的名词前面作为定语,表示该名词的用途或有关的动作。

 1. sleeping car 卧车
 2. walking stick 手杖
 3. printing shop 印务馆
 4. reading room 阅读室
 5. swimming pool 泳池
 6. washing machine 洗衣机
 7. dining room 饭厅

六、在英文正式语体里,动名词可放在前置词(Preposition)后,以替代副词/状语的子
句(Adverbial Clauses)

例:1. In case customers encounter difficulties, they should ring the
following number:...
   2. In case of encountering difficulties, customers should ring the
following number:...

第二个句子的"In case of "动名词短句(Gerund Phrase) 取代第一个句子的 "In
case" 副词子句。

下列都是这类例子:

1. In spite of doing his best, the pupil was reproached. (In spite of )
2. Despite coming in time, the visitors were not admitted. (despite)
3. For all his arguing, the teacher could not convince us. (for all)
4. The fireman distinguished himself by doing his duty to the utmost. (by)
5. In sending us the book you proved to be reliable. (In)
6. Instead of blaming the boy, the teacher encouraged him. (instead of )
7. The girl left without saying a word. (without)
8. The boy was blamed for breaking the window. (for)
9. The children got tired from learning too much. (from)
10. After spending the holidays with us, our nephew went back to England.
(after)
11. Before going to bed, I opened the window. (before)
12. On arriving at the station, John was welcomed by his friends. (on)
13. Since leaving school, I have not seen my teacher. (since)

关于动名词终于谈完了,呜呼噫嘻……


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相关专题:语法杂谈
资料更新时间: 2003-6-28 15:12:00
资料标题:《英文语法拉杂谈--动名词》
检索关键字:英语,英语学习
资料编号:690
资料来源:不详
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