一、shall 和 will
1.1 助动词shall/will 的最常用法，就是表示后面的动词属于未来式(future
I shall go tomorrow.
We shall go tomorrow.
He will go tomorrow.
She will go tomorrow.
They will go tomorrow.
You shall obey me.(你要服从我。）
He shall leave the house instantly.（他决定马上离开家。）
You shall have my book.（说这话的人答应把书给对方。）
I will speak, in spite of you.(不管你怎样，我决定说。）
I will never forsake you.(我永远不会舍弃你。）
shall 用在第一人称（就是 I 或 we) 时：
I shall tell you this evening. (意向）
I shall never do it again. (答应）
Shall I post the letter for you? (问对方的意愿）
shall 用在第二人称(you)或第三人称（he, she, it , they) 时：
You shall never see her again. (意向）
You shall go at once. （命令）
You shall have a reward. （答应）
You shall punished. （恫吓）
Shall he be paid? （问对方的意向）
I will work hard. (意向）
I will be obeyed. （命令）
I will help you as much as I can. （答应）
I will punish you. （恫吓）
You will send in your report on Thursday. (命令）
Whatever you may say, things of this kind will go on. （必然性）
Will you help me? （请求）
Will you tell me about it? （请求）
You will sit here for hours saying nothing. （表示习惯）
下来谈谈should 和 would
3.1 should 用在第一人称时：
I should be glad to see you if you would call tomorrow morning. (条件）
I should be glad to see you. (省略条件子句conditional clause) （条件）
We should sort out this problem at once. （决定）
I think we should check everything again. （劝告）
3.2 should 用在第二人称或第三人称时：
Should you like to see him if he should call on you this evening? (表示将
Should you like to see him. （省略条件子句conditional clause）
It's a pity you should always be so busy. （看法）
If you should see Peter, tell him about the match. （可能）
You should apply for a visa right away. （责任）
If it should be fine tomorrow, I shall go out. (条件）
It is a pity that she should be so ill.
3.3 should 用在任何人称时：
I / You/ He/ She/ They should study hard. (义务或责任）
4.1 would 用在第一人称时：
If I could, I would work hard. (意向）
I would be obeyed. （命令）
I would help you as much as I could. （答应）
I would punish you if you should do it again. （恫吓）
4.2 would 用在第二人称或第三人称时：
If you were a bird, you would be able to fly. (将来）
Would you tell me about it? (请求）
Would you help me? （请求）
Would you were with us! （愿望）
He would keep playing with my watch. （持续）
They wouldn't (would not) believe me. （拒绝）
Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me? （许可）
Would you pass the salt please? （请求）
Would you mind waiting a moment? （请求）
Would you like to play golf this Friday? （邀请）
shall / will / should / would 真是千头万绪，真没办法。
这回我们来谈谈助动词 may 和 might。
You may go home now.
She may go to the cinema.
You may not go anywhere.
She may not go to the cinema.
May I go to the cinema?
May I use your dictionary?
May I have another cup of coffee?
May I watch television tonight? Yes, you may.
May I leave work at 16:00 hrs.? No, you may not.
1.2 表示可能性(Possibility)：（也可用 might 代替）
China may become a major economic power.
We may go to dinner tonight, I'm not sure.
It may snow tomorrow.
He may not go to Spain this year.
Perhaps I may go with you.
May success be yours.
May you return in safety.
May he rest in peace.
May God help us!
1.4 may have 表示"也许曾经"：
He may have missed his train.
1.5 that...may 表示目的：
Teach me that I may be able to learn.
He flatters that he may win power.
It might rain today.
They might go to the cinema.
They might not go to the cinema.
We might go to dinner tonight, I'm not sure.
It might rain tomorrow.
He might not go to Japan next year.
You might shoot another panther this year.
You might post this for me. （请求）请你把这信寄一寄。
You might at least apologize. (责备）你至少该赔个不是。
He might at least have offered to help me. （责怪）他至少该说来帮助我。
I might have been a rich man. (懊悔）我该做到富翁了。
Sam can play the guitar.
Can Howard sing?
He can't (cannot) understand German.
Can I park my car here?
No, you can't, it is a no parking zone.
Can I go to the theatre with Zhang?
A car can be a useful means of transport or a dangerous weapon.
She can be very hard to understand sometimes.
We can live life with a positive or a negative attitude.
He cannot be a cruel man. 他不可能是一个冷酷的人。
Can they have said such a thing? 他们何至于说出这样的话？
2.1 作为can 的过去式：
She couldn't (could not) come to dinner last night.
They could walk faster when they were younger.
Sam could play the piano when he was a boy.
Could you tell me the time, please?
Could you help me, please?
Could I have a coffee, please?
Could we come and visit you this evening?
2.3 could not help-ing, could not but 有"不禁"，"忍不住"之意：
We could not but laugh. 我们忍不住发笑了。
We could not help laughing. 我们不禁笑了起来。
这回让我们来谈谈助动词MUST 。助动词shall, will, may, can 都有过去式（Past
Tense：should, would,might, could), 而must 却没有；但是它也往往指过去的事。
You must listen to him. 你必须听他的话。
(注意：如果要说"你不必听他的话。" 可不能说 "You must not liston to him。"而
You need not liston to him.
因为 "You must not liston to him." 的意思是 "你不可听他的话。" ）
He must be a honest man. 他一定是一个诚实的人。
As I was sitting down to supper, the telephone must ring. 当我正在坐下来吃
四、"must have+(past participle)..." 的用法：
4.1 "谅必曾经" 的意思：
You must have seen him yesterday. 你谅必曾在昨天看见他。
4.2 "谅必曾经（但实在不曾）" 的意思：
You must have seen him if you had been here yesterday. 如果你昨天在这里，
4.3 "必须曾经" 的意思：
Any applicant for this position must have practised for five years. 对于
一部份，其他如：have, be(am, is, are, were, been, being), ought, need, dare,
used to 等等。下面仅谈其中need和dare。
一、NEED ：当用作助动词时，它的特征是：第三人称、现在式（Present tense)、在
Need he go yesterday? (注意：句子指过去，但need为现在式，he go 不作 he
He need not go yesterday.
He need not have any help from us yesterday.
二、DARE ：和need一样，dare 和 need 除了用作普通的动词外，也可用作助动词。它
He dare not go.
He dare not do anything.
He dare not take such a step.
No-one dare go.
Dare he go?
"I dare say" 这种说法有"我以为"、"大概"、"在我看来"、"或者"的意思：
I dare say it will be right.
His brother, I dare say, is richer.
I dare say his brother is richer.