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www.iselong.com 作者:卧月眠云

文章开头句型
I 对立法 II 现象法 III 观点法 IV 引用法 V 比较法 VI 故事法 VII 问题法

I.对立法

  文章开头首先引出人们对要讨论的问题的不同看法,然后提出作者自己的不同看
法,或偏向的那个看法。对立法的句型多用于有争议性的主题。

1 When asked about..., the vast / overwhelming majority of
most / many / quite a few people say
think
believe
answer
1 that.... But other people regard / view / see / think of.. . as....
I think /view quite / a bit differently.

  1.1 When asked about the biggest problem today, many people say that it
is the serious energy crisis. They are afraid that the world will soon run
out of oil and run short of food. But other people hold optimistic views:
they regard it as a natural result of the economic development and believe
it will be only solved with further advances in economy and technology.
  当问起世界上现在最大的问题是什么,许多人说是严重的能源危机。他们担心人类
不久会用完石油、发生食品短缺!但有些人则持乐观的看法。他们把能源危机看成是经
济发展的自然结果,而且只有随着经济和技术的进一步发展才能得以解决。

  1.2 When asked what kind of career they will pursue upon graduation, mist
college students say that they would choose a job which will bring them lot
of money and a conformable life. Working in a big bank or company is what
they desire. But I think quite differently. I would prefer a career which
will help realize my potentials.
  当问起毕业后干什么,大多数大学生说,他们会找一个能给他们带来许多钱和舒适
生活的工作。在一家大银行或大的公司里工作是他们所向往的。但是我的想法大不相
同。我要选择一个能够发挥我的才能的职业。

2 When It comes to..., some people think
believe that.... Others argue
claim that the
2 opposite
reverse is true. There Is probably some truth in both arguments
statements , but....

  2.1 When it canes to international sport such as the Olympic Games and
the World Cup soccer game, some people believe that it creates goodwill
between the nations and that if countries play games together they will
learn to live together. Others say that the opposite is true: that
international contests encourage false national pride and lead in
misunderstanding and hatred. There is probably a little bit of truth in both
arguments, but in recent years the Olympic Games have done little to support
the view that sports encourage international brotherhood.
  当说到国际体育比赛,诸如奥林匹克运动会和世界杯足球赛,有些人认为它能增进
国与国之间的友善。如果许多国家在一起比赛交流,他们就会知道怎么一起生活。但另
一些人则持相反的观点。他们认为国际体育竞赛只会造成虚假的民族自豪感,导致相互
间的误解和仇恨。这两种观点可能都有点道理,但是从最近几年的奥林匹克运动会来
看,很少能证明体育运动可以增进国与国之间的友好感情。

  2.2 In the last decades, advances in medical technology have made it
possible for people to live longer than in the past. Yet when it comes to
the desirability of extending the life of the terminally ill, some people,
including some doctors, say that the quality of life is as important as life
itself, and that people should in be forced to go on living when the
conditions of life have become unbearable. They argue that people should be
allowed to die with dignity and decide when they want to die. However those
who are in favor of life-extending measures argue that life under any
circumstances is better than death and that the duty of doctors is always to
extend life as long as possible. There is probably some truth on both sides,
but recently the public clamor for the legalization of voluntary euthanasia
seem increasingly strong.
  在最近几十年,医学技术的进步使得人类有可能比过去活得长了。但是当论及延长
一个无可挽救、濒临死亡的人的生命是否必要时,有些人,包括有些医生认为生命的质
量和生命本身同样重要;当病情已变得不堪忍受了,就不应迫使这些人再活下去。他们
坚持说应允许一个人尊严地死去,允许他们决定什么时候死。但是赞成采取延长生命的
方法的人认为在任何情况下生总比死好;一个医生的责任就是尽可能延长一个人的生
命。或许双方都有点道理,但是最近公众要求对自愿安乐死合法化的呼声似乎越来越
高。

3 There is a public
general
much debate
discussion
controversy today
nowadays on
about
over
as to the problem
issue of.... Those who criticize
oppose
object to
3 ... contend
argue ... that.... They believe that .... But people who advocate
favor ..., on the other hand, maintain
assert that....

  3.1 There is much discussion today about whether fast economic growth is
desirable. Those who criticize economic growth argue that we must slow down.
They believe that society is approaching certain limits on growth. These
include the fixed supply of natural resources, and the possible negative
effects of industry on the natural environment. People who want more
economic growth, on the other hand, argue that even at the present growth
rate, there are still many poor people, They maintain that only continued
growth can create the capital needed to improve the quality of life and
provide the financial resources required to protect our natural surroundings
from industrialization.
  现在围绕快速的经济发展是否应该正展开一场热烈的讨论。那些持反对意见者认为
我们必须放慢发展速度。他们说发展已接近某种极限!这其中包括有限的自然资源供应
和工业对环境造成的消极影响。然而要求更快发展的人则认为,即使按目前的发展速度
还是有许多穷人。他们认为经济的持续快速发展才能创造提高生活质量所必需的资本,
才能提供用来保护环境不受工业化破坏的资金。

  3.2 There is a general debate on the campus today over the phenomenon of
college students' doing a part-time job. Those who object to it argue that
students should not spend their precious time in this way. But people who
advocate it, on the other hand, claim that, by taking a major-related
part-time job or summer job, students can not only improve their academic
studies, but gain much experience, experience they will never be able to get
from the textbooks.
  关于大学生打工这一现象,校园里正展开一场讨论。反对大学生打工的人指出大学
生不应该把宝贵的时间花在这上面。然而赞成者则认为,通过从事一些与专业有关的工
作,可以提高学生的学习,还可获得到书本上得不到的许多经验。

4 Now, It is commonly
generally
widely believed
thought
held
accepted
felt
recognized
acknowledged that.... They
4 claim
believe
argue that .... But I wonder
doubt whether ...

  4.1 It is commonly believed that the rise in teenage smoking is the
inevitable result of economic development. They argue that if there are no
cigarette advertisement on TV, no cigarettes available everywhere, and no
adequate pocket money, teenagers are unlikely to take up the habit of
smoking. But I doubt that it is a satisfactory explanation. While conceding
the effect of advertising and other commercial factors, I think that the
primary cause is social and individual rather than economic.
  人们普遍认为青少年吸烟人数上升是经济发展不可避免的结果。他们认为:如果电
视上没有香烟广告,香烟不是到处可买得到,孩子的零用钱不是很多的话,青少年不太
可能染上吸烟的习惯。但我怀疑这是否是一个满意的解释。虽然有广告和其它商业因素
的影响,我认为主要原因是社会和个人因素而不是经济上的。

  4.2 It is widely felt that there is a fear plainly uppermost in the minds
of most people today. They are afraid of the future, and if you ask them
why, they conveniently blame the atomic bomb. But I suspect that the nuclear
weapon is only the scapegoat for our fears. We are not afraid of the future
because of a bomb. We are afraid of bombs because we have no faith in the
future. I believe people no longer have faith in our ability to control our
own future.
  人们普遍感到现在大多数人明显地有一种恐惧感。他们怕将来。如果问他们为什么
怕,他们会很随意地怪原子弹。但我怀疑,核武器不过是我们害怕的替罪羊。我们怕将
来不是因为有了原子弹,说我们怕原子禅,实际上是对未来没有信心。我认为人们对自
己是否有能力控制将来已丧失信心了。

5 To the general public
To most people
In the popular mind
In most people's opinion .... But despite
in spite of
for all .... I believe....
one should ...

  5.1 In the popular mind, it is immediately assumed that when morals are
discussed, it is sexual morals that are meant. The morals of salesmen,
doctors, and taxi drivers are only moderately interesting to the general
public, while the relations between men and women are frequent themes in
novels and movies, themes which no amount of repetition makes stale. Yet in
spite of this immense preoccupation with sex, much attention should be drawn
to the general moral standards.
  当讨论起道德问题时,大多数人会立即认为是指性道德。一方面售货员、医生和出
租车司机的职业道德不大为公众所关心,而另一方面男女间的关系却是小说和电影中经
常出现的主题,再怎么不断重复也不会失去其新鲜感。因此尽管人们对性的题目津津乐
道,我认为应注意整个道德水平。

  5.2 To most Chinese parents, college is a place their children should go.
And their children, for the most part, are also anxious to go. It is in
Chinese tradition that there is something about a college that transfers an
ordinary child into a superior adult. But in spite of this belief, men and
women who have been to college suspect that this is not the case.
  大多数中国父母看来,大学是他们的子女应该去的地方。而他们的孩子在大多数情
况下也渴望上大学。中国的传统观点是大学能把一个普普通通的孩子培养成一个超人一
等的人。但是尽管人们有这个观点,凡是读过大学的人却认为情况并非如此。

6 Now a lot of
the majority of
many / most people believe
think
feel that....
6 But although
Admittedly, ... there is no / little evidence that
it is questioned /doubted ...

  6.1 A lot of people believe that television has a harmful effect on
children. A few years ago, the same criticisms were made of the cinema. But
although child psychologists have spent a great deal of time studying this
problem, there is not much evidence that television brings about juvenile
delinquency.
  许多人都认为电视会给孩子带来危害。前几年,对电影也有类似的指责。然而尽管
青少年心理学者花了许多时间来研究这个问题,却很少有证据表明电视造成了青少年犯
罪。

  6.2 Most people believe that our society of consumption creates the
greatest happiness for the greatest number. Although this view is widely
held, there is little evidence that Money brings about happiness. Instead,
we find our present way of life leads to increasing anxiety, helplessness,
and, eventually, to the disintegration of our culture. I refuse to identify
consumption with joy and fun with happiness.
  许多人认为,我们这个消费社会给绝大多数人带来了最大的幸福。尽管人们普遍这
样认为,却很少有证据表明钱能给人带来幸福。相反,我们发现,现在的全活方式使人
越来越感到焦虑不安,孤立无援,最终导致我们文化的崩溃。我不认为消费就是快乐,
玩乐就是幸福。

  6.3 There is some feeling nowadays that reading is not as necessary as it
once was. Radio and especially television have taken over many of the
functions once served by print. Admittedly, television serves some of these
functions extremely well; the visual communication of news events, for
example, has enormous impact. The ability of radio to give us information
while we are engaged in doing other things ------ for instance, driving a
car ------ is remarkable, and a great saving of time. But it may be
seriously questioned whether the advent of modern communications media has
much enhanced our intellectual skills.
  现在有些人觉得,阅读没有像过去那样有必要了。无线电广播,尤其电视已代替了
曾经由印刷所起的许多作用。确实,电视极好地发挥了其中的一些功能,如新闻通过图
像来传送有很大的影响。无线电广播能使我们边干事,如开车,边收听消息,真是了不
起,且可节约许多时间。但是人们或许会认真发问,这些现代传播媒体的出现是否已提
高了我们的知识技能。

7 .... In reaction
response
answer to the event
phenomenon
idea
question , some people say
think .... But do they realize...?

  7.1 Now most people get their news and information about the things that
are happening at home and abroad from television. They believe the things
they hear and see on television. Probably most of the information is true,
and we can believe it. But shall we always believe the information which
television gives us? Do we never suspect that the given information might be
slanted, distorted or the truth totally denied?
  现在大多数人都是从电视上知道国内外发生的事和新闻的。他们都相信在电视上看
到和听到的事。大多数消息可能是真的,我们能相信。但是我们是否总是要相信电视给
我们的消息呢?难道我们从不怀疑所给的消息可能有偏见,或已歪曲了,或真相已被彻
底隐瞒了?

  7.2 In the past few years big business has fallen to a low level in
public esteem. A recent Gallup poll shows that big business came in last, in
terms of the quality of the products, among all the enterprises which sell
household appliances in Shanghai; at the top of the list were small business
or business from small towns. in response to the poll, many businessmen
argue that this public attitude is due to the inadequacy of their
advertising and can be cured by stepping up their advertising campaigns.
They are only fooling themselves. Do they realize that the real problem for
their loss of public respect is what they have been doing, not what they
have been saying about themselves?
  在过去几年里,大企业在公众中的信誉已下降到一个低水平。最近的盖洛普民意测
验表明,就产品质量来说在上海出售家用电器的所有企业中,大企业位居榜末,而小企
业或乡镇企业名列前茅。对此许多大企业人士认为公众的这种态度是由于广告宣传不够
造成的,只要加大广告宣传声势,就会扭转局面。这是在自欺欺人。难道他们没有认识
到失去公众信誉的真正问题在于他们所做的,而不是所说的?

8 ... is a popular
widespread
common method
way of..., but is it a fair
wise
reasonable one?  
8 The
Its method / way
values / wisdom s now being questioned
challenged by more and more people.

  8.1 Throwing criminals in jail is an ancient and widespread method of
punishment, but is it a wise one? It does seem reasonable to keep wrongdoers
in a place where they find fewer opportunities to hurt innocent people, and
where they might discover that crime doesn't pay. The system has long been
considered fair and sound by those who want to see the guilty punished and
society protected. Yet the values of this form of justice is now being
questioned by more and more people.
  把罪犯丢进监狱是个古老又被广泛采用的惩罚方法。但这个方法是否明智?把做坏
事的人关在一个地方,使他们没有机会再损害无辜的人,使他们感到犯罪划不来,似乎
确实有道理。这种制度一直被那些希望罪恶得到惩罚,社会得到保护的人视为公平而有
效。但是这种司法形式的合理性现在正受到越来越多的人的质疑。

  8.2 Required class attendance, like an old custom, is so common in in
Chinese colleges and universities that many teachers and even students
themselves simply assume it is a good thing. But is it a wise method? It
does contribute to the rise in the number of students attending class. But
is there any proven co-relation between attendance and performance in a
course? The values of required attendance is now being questioned by more
and more teachers and students.
  上课点名制,如同一种古老习俗,在中国的大学里非常普遍,许多教师甚至学生自
己都认为这种做法是对的。但这种方法是否明智?上课点名确实有助于学生出勤率的上
升,但是到教室上课和这个学生在这门课上的学习表现,两者之间是否已证实有联系?
上课点名制度的合理性已受到越来越多的教师和学生的怀疑。

9  These days we often hear about.... They claim
argue
say that.... But  has
is it?
9  Close  examination
analysis
scrutiny  doesn't bear out the claim.
argument.

  9.1 These days we often hear about "the classless society". They say that
all men are equal, and they can enjoy the same educational and job
opportunities, and the distinction between rich and poor has lost. But has
it? Close examination doesn't bear out the claim.
  近来我们一直听到关于“无阶级社会”的说法。他们称人人平等他们都享受同等的
教育机会和工作机会;穷人和富人的界限已经消失。果真如此吗?略细分析一下,就证
明这种观点站不住脚。

  9.2 These days I have heard many exasperated students and working adults
alike express a strong desire to take an English course and a computer
course. They believe that such knowledge will enhance their job
opportunities or promotion opportunities. But will it? The information I've
collected over last few years leads me to believe that this knowledge may be
less useful than most people think.
  这些日子我听到不少因学习或工作而感到痛苦的学生和工人表示要上英语课或电脑
课的强烈愿望。他们认为这些知识会增加他们找工作、晋级的机会。是这样吗?从我最
近几年得到的材料来看,我认为这些知识并不像大多数人认为的那么有用。

10 We are often shown
told  these days that.... But is this really the case?

  10.1 We are often told that technological know-how, acquired in exploring
space, will be utilized to make life better on earth. Is this really the
case? What has the space exploration done to relieve the suffering of the
earth's starving millions? In what way has it raised the standard of living
of anyone of us? Man may put human beings on the moon, but there is growing
skepticism about his ability to solve human problems closer to home.
  我们经常听说在探索空间中获得的技术知识将用来改善我们地球上的人的生活。情
况真的如此吗?太空探索对减轻地球上正在挨饿的千百万人的痛苦到底做了什么呢?它
从什么方面提高了我们的生活水平呢?人类能够把人自己送上月球,但人们越来越怀疑
其解决地球上人自己问题的能力。


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资料更新时间: 2003-6-28 15:12:00
资料标题:《关于作文(1)》
检索关键字:英语,英语学习
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