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英文语法拉杂谈-标点(Punctuation)好好玩(1-5)

www.iselong.com 作者:平平

标点(Punctuation)好好玩(一)

书、笔、纸、墨水。

大家看看上面的句子,句中用的是什么标点呢?相信谁都会说是:顿号和句号啦。在英
文句子里,也有顿号(、)和小圈儿句号(。)吗?上面的句子以英文来写的话,就应该是


Book, pen, paper, ink.

可见在英文里是不用顿号和中文式句号的。标点符号在中、英文里的写法和用法有好多
差别。下面就让我们从一个中文里所没有的标点开始吧。

-------------------------------------------------
一、Apostrophe (')省字符号、所有格符号

这个标点在中文里是没有的;但在英文里却随处可见。主要用在下列几方面:

* 表示所有格 (所有格的变化也不少,详细情形容后再谈)
* 缩写式
* 表示一些数字、字母、日期、缩写的复数形式

1.1 所有格 (Possessives):(注意:下列所有格只用在动物方面)

1.1.1 在名词(有生命的)后加上 's 表示单数所有格:

1. Sarah's coat is black. 莎拉的外套是黑色的。(Sarah's=莎拉的)
2. The boy's hat.  (这男孩有一顶帽子)
3. The boy's hats. (这男孩有好几顶帽子)
4. Jones's office. (Jones 只有一个音节,结尾是 s, 所有格加 's)
5. Jones' sweet tooth is legendary. (Jones 的结尾是s, 而接下来的词又以s开
始,那么,所有格就只加 ' 喔,真好玩!)
6. Moses' mouth is wide. (Moses 的尾音有重复的z音,所有格只加 ')
7. Louis' candy is sticky. (Louis有不止一个音节,结尾s,所有格只加 ' 。为什
么呢?好玩极了!)
8. My mother-in-law's house. (monther-in-law 之类的复合名词,所有格's加在
结尾处)
9.  The Surgeon General's report is due soon. (Surgeon General是复合词,同
上。)
======= 哎呀!是不是觉得很乱?让我们归纳一下:

A. 一般单数名词(有生命的!),所有格只在结尾加 's (第1-3句)
B. 如果单数名词尾是s, 或ce,所有格只加 '或 's (第4句)
C. 如果单数名词尾是s, 而跟着是以S开头的词,所有格只加 ' (第5句)
D. 如果单数名词尾音有重复的s或z音,或是eez音,所有格只加 ' (第6句)
E. 如果B项的名词只有一个音节(syllable),所有格只能加 's  (第4句)
F. 如果B项的名词有二个以上音节,所有格则只加 ' (第7句)
G. 复合词类处理法同A。(第8-9句)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
1.1.2 二人(或其他动物)以上的所有格表示法:

1. The boys' shoes. (在复数boys尾加上 '而不是 's 喔)
2. The women's bags. (woman 的复数是 women, 所有格是 's)
3. The children's caps. (child 的复数是 children,和women同类型,所有格加
's)
4. The actresses' hats. (actress 的复数是 actresses,因为结尾是 es, 因此所
有格只加 '便可)
5. The babies' toys. (baby 的复数是 babies,结尾有es,因此所有格只加 ')
6. Ms. Joneses' house. (Joneses 是Jones 的复数)
7. My mothers-in-law's house. (注意是motherS 喔,所有格还是加 's)

=====同样来归纳一下:

A.简单复数名词(同样是有生命的喔)的所有格写法是:先将原来单数名词结尾加s变成
复数,然后在结尾处再加上 '即成。(第1句)
B. 如果复数名词是由改变其内的韵母形成的,所有格同单数名词一样,结尾加上 's
(第2-3句)
C.如果复数名词尾是es, 所有格只加 ' (第4-6句)
D.如果是复数复合名词,则先将主要单数名词转成复数,然后在复合名词尾加上's
(第7句)

-------------------------------------------------
1.1.3 如果是几个名词并列的,所有格 's 加在最后一个名词尾:

1. Joe and Linda's house is being sold. 乔和琳达的房子已卖了。(这里表示房
子是Joe和Linda所共有)
-------------------------------------------------
1.1.4 如果几个名词是个别表示所有格时,每个名词尾都须加上 's :

1. Mike's and Molly's grades have improved. 迈克和莫莉的成绩已有进步。(这
里表示迈克和莫莉各别的成绩都有进步)
-------------------------------------------------
1.1.5 不定式名词的所有格是在词尾加 's:

1. I need someone's help with my homework. (someone 指某人,所有格someone's
某人的)
-------------------------------------------------
1.1.6 代名词的所有格不可加上 '或 's :

1. Shella, whose eyes are blue? (whose哪个人的,已有所有格的意思)
2. This book is hers, not yours. (hers她的,yours你的)
3. It hurt its paw. (its 它的)
4. It's a nice day. (it's 是 it is 的意思,不属于所有格)
5. That is your right. (your 你的)
=================================================
1.2 缩写式(Contractions):

1.2.1 在字词、日期中一部份字母或数字被省略,以 ' 代之 。

1. She wouldn't work for the gov't in '93. (wouldn't=would not,
gov't=government, '93=1993)

1.2.2 名字、头衔的缩写格式可省略 '

1. Lt. Wm. Jones visited us. (Lt. =Lieutenant, 不可写成 L't , Wm=William,
不可写成 W'm)
=================================================
1.3  复数形式(Plurals):

1.3.1 当一个词在句子里能清楚反映其复数意义时,不可再加 ':

1. Don't give me any ifs, ands, or buts. (不可写成 if's , and's , but's)
-------------------------------------------------
1.3.2  在句子里,当一个词仅仅作为一个词时,其复数形式可加 's 使其含意更清
晰:

1. He used twenty-five and's in one paragraph. 他在一段里用了25个and字。
-------------------------------------------------
1.3.3  日期、数目字、只取首字母的缩写词(acronyms)这类以大写字母结尾时,复
数形式只需加上 s ,不必再加上 ' :

1. Seven Ph.D.s lived in this building in the 1970s. (Ph.D.s 不可写成
Ph.D.'s, 1970s 也不可写成 1970's)
-------------------------------------------------
1.3.4  当一个大写字母的复数形式可能会被误解时,可加上 's 以表示复数:

1. The Roman Numerals for the number eight is a V followed by three I's.
   罗马数字八的写法是V后加上三个 I 。(这时如果 I's 只写成 Is , 就可能引起
误解)
=================================================

到目前为止,我们只谈了一个Apostrophe就有这么多丁丁东东。所以你说英文标点好玩
不好玩?

标点(Punctuation)好好玩(二)

逗号/逗点在中文或英文里是再普通不过的一个标点符号;可是,它的用法在中文和英
里可就不一定相同了。

二、Comma (,) 逗号、逗点

在英文里,逗号的用途有:

* 连接句子里不同的成份
* 分开句子里不同的成份
* 突出句子里的某个成份
* 替代句子里的某个成份
成份指:词、短语(phrase)、子句(clause)等。

2.1 连接句子里不同的成份

   2.1.1 逗号用在以 and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet 等连接词的两个主要子句
之间:

1. My father is fond of fishing, but my mother prefers hiking. (以 ,but 连
接两个子句)

2. He painted the exterior of the house, and she painted the interior. (以
,and 连接两个子句)
========================================================
2.2 分开句子里不同的成份

   2.2.1 用逗号分开两个以上的并列形容词:(如果并列的形容词之间可加上and,
but等,那就加上逗号;否则不可)

1. That tall, distinguished, good looking fellow. (可写成 He is a tall and
distinguished fellow.)

2. She is a little and old lady. (不可写成 She is a little, old lady.)
----------------------------------------------------------------
   2.2.2 在两个修饰主语的短语之间加上逗号(句短可不加):

1. While waiting for the bus on that cold rainy night, she started
sneezing. (主语she)

2. At 10 o'clock the bus arrived. (不必写成 At 10 o'clock, the bus
arrived.)
----------------------------------------------------------------
  2.2.3 在 Jr., Sr., Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., Inc., 等名称之前及后都要加上逗
号(除了所有格的名称):

1. They identified him as Howard R. Williams, Jr., chairman of their board.
(,Jr.,)

2. That is Howard R. Williams, Jr.'s company. (,Jr.'s 后面不可再加逗号)
----------------------------------------------------------------
  2.2.4 在追问句之前加逗号:

1. Do it, won't you? (Do it 是命令语气,won't you?是追问)

2. You know the answer, don't you?

3. It is warm today, isn't it?
----------------------------------------------------------------
  2.2.5 一个以副词或副词短语开头的句子,如果它和前面的句子有关联的话,必
须在有关副词或副词短语后加上逗号:

1. She believed he had the talent to succeed. Unfortunately, he was lazy.
(后一个句子以副词 unfortunately 开头,同时这个句子和前一个句子有直接的关联)
----------------------------------------------------------------
    2.2.6  在句子里有超过三个并列词或短语等,在最后一个,and, or, nor等
之前加逗号:

1. He promised to supply the pencils, pens, and notebooks for the class.
(简单说就是 pencils, pens, notebooks 要写成 pencils, pens, and notebooks)

2.  Her mother sells tomatoes, potatoes, apples, and peaches. (...apples,
and...)

3.  She ran up the stairs, across the porch, and into the house. (up the
staris, across the porch, into the house 是三个短语,在最后一个加 ,and)

4.  We all agreed that she was beautiful, that she was intelligent, and
that she was ambitious. (三个 that she was...都是子句 )
-------------------------------------------------------------------
    2.2.7  在句子中加上逗号,以免引起误解:

1. That she knew where the money was, was news to me. (如果was, was 之间
不加逗号,是不是会引起误解呢?)

2. Outside, the lawn was cluttered with hundreds of broken branches.
   外面的草坪上到处是断枝。
   (如果outside 后去掉逗号, 那意思就变成“在草坪的外面到处是断枝。”)
------------------------------------------------------------------
    2.2.8  用逗号分开引用句:

1.  “You are beautiful,” he said. (这个逗号要放在引号内)

2.  Our teacher said, “Freedom is not license.” (...said,)

3.  “No,” she said, “I was just testing your patience.” (No, /
....said,)

4.  “Perhaps,”Tom responded, “I will try anyway.” (Perhaps, /
responded,)
-------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.9  逗号用以分开星期、月日、年份:

1.  On Monday, May 5,2000, her first child was born. (Monday, May 5,
2000, )

2.  On March 8, 2003, he bought a new car. (March 8, 2003, )

3.  June 2000 is one of the most meaningful of my life. (只有月和年,就不
必加逗号)
--------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.10  逗号用以分开地名、省名、国名、街道名、巷弄名等:

1.  Linda lives at 1234 Amarillo Ave., #1, Palo Alto, CA 94303, U.S.A.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.11  逗号用在 such as 和 especially 的前面:

1.  They enjoy outdoor sports, such as hiking and riding.

2.  He likes all extracurricular activities, especially basketball
playing.
===========================================================
2.3  突出句子中某个插入成份(Parenthetical elements):
所谓插入成份,是指在句子中去掉它也可成立的成份。插入成份一般是感叹词、状
语、副词子句等。

2.3.1 句子里插入的词、短语、子句等,加上逗号以示插入成份:

1. He knew, however, that no one would listen to his warning. ( 插入
however)

2.  No, you may not come with us. (插入 No)
-------------------------------------------------------------------
2.3.2 用逗号分开“乃此非彼”的结构:

1. Jane, not Shirley, will attend the meeting. (是 Jane,不是 Shirley)

2. He wanted to see Mr. Wu, not Mr. Hu. (是吴先生,不是胡先生)

3. Some say the world will end in ice, not fire. (是冰,不是火)

4. It was her money, not her charm or personality, that first attracted
him. (为的是她的财富,不是为了她的妩媚或个性)
-------------------------------------------------------------------
2.3.3 句中有非限制性的词或短语之类,以逗号标出以示插入成份:

1. Her husband, Bill, is a scientist. (Bill 为插入成份)

2. Kent Howard, my English teacher, is from America. (插入成份 my English
teacher)

3. Her father, who is a famous scholar, teaches English.(插入成份 who is a
famous scholar)

4. Eleanor, his wife of thirty years, suddenly decided to open her own
business. (试将插入成份 his wife of thirty years 去掉,句子是否也能成立?)
--------------------------------------------------------------------
2.3.4 句中的城市名如果和它的省、州、国名并列,省、州、国名前后须加逗号:

1. We visited Hartford, Connecticut, last summer. (Connecticut 为插入成份)
2. Paris, France, is sometimes called "The City of Lights." (France 为插入
成份)
3. Hartford, Connecticut's investment in the insurance industry is well
known.(Connecticut's 为所有格式,后面不可加逗号喔)
---------------------------------------------------------------------
2.3.5 句中带着连接词(but, and, or...)的插入成份的前面不可加上逗号:

1. The Red Sox were leading the league at the end of May, but of
   course, they always do well in the spring. (but 的后面不可加逗号)

2. The Tigers spent much of the season at the bottom of the league, and
   even though they picked up several promising rookies, they expect to be
there again next year. (and 的后面不可再加逗号)
-----------------------------------------------------------
2.3.6  向人说话时,逗号放在对方名字或称谓之后、之前或者前后都加:

1.  John, come here. (John, 逗号在名字之后)

2.  Open the door, John. ( ,John 逗号放在名字之前)

3.  It is, Sir, not my fault.  ( , Sir, 逗号放在称谓前面和后面)
===========================================================
2.4  替代句子里某个成份

2.4.1 用逗号替代句子里某部份,表示字词的省略:

1. The lion is the symbol of courage; the lamb, of meekness. (the lamb, of
meekness 原本应该是 the lamb is the symbol of meekness)

2. George was the hard worker, John, the lazy one. (John, the lazy one 原
本应该是 John was the lazy one)
===========================================================

终于搞定。你说英文逗号容易用,还是中文逗号容易用?

标点(Punctuation)好好玩(三)

三、Period / Full Stop (.) 句号、句点

句号的写法,在英文里是个小黑点(.),可在中文却是个小圈儿(。)(在科学技术文章里
也可用“小黑点”)。用法也有些差异,在英文方面,最“好玩”的是用在缩写方面:

* 句号用在陈述句、祈使句及礼貌问句等的句尾
* 句号用在缩写方面
* 句号用在数目字方面

3.1 句号用在陈述句、祈使句及礼貌问句等的句尾:

3.1.1 用在陈述句(Declarative sentence)尾,表示句子结束:

1. I am leaving now.

2. Ailan and Xiaodong are my friends.
-------------------------------------------------
3.1.2  用在祈使句(Imperative sentence)尾,表示句子结束:

1. Close the door.

2. Turn in your papers, please.
--------------------------------------------------
3.1.3 用在礼貌的、祈使性的、以及间接疑问句(Interrogative sentence)尾,表示
句子结束:

1. Will you please send me three copies. 麻烦你给我三份。(不要看到Will
you...就在句尾加问号喔)

2. Since when am I supposed to believe this. 我什么时候会相信这个呢。

3. He asked if you can come. 他问你能不能来。
==============================================
3.2 句号用在表示缩写(Abbreviation, Acronym):

3.2.1 缩写词(Abbreviation):(将一个字词省略其中某些字母,字尾须加句号)

1. 称呼:Mr. = Mister, Mrs.= Misteress, Dr. = Doctor, Mim. = Ministor /
Ministry , Esq. = Esquire (先生)

2. 时间:yr. = year, min.=minute

3.  星期:Mon. = Monday, Tues. = Tuesday, Wed. = Wednesday, Thurs. =
Thursday, Fri. = Friday, Sat. = Saturday, Sun. = Sunday

4. 月份:Jan. = January, Feb. = February, Mar. = March, Apr. = April, Jun.
= June, Jul. = July, Aug./Ag. = August, Sept. = September, Oct. = October,
Nov. = November, Dec. = December (注意:oct. = octave八度, nov. = novelist
小说家, dec. = deceased亡故)

5. 国名:Afr. = Africa / African, Aus. = Austria / Austrian, Fr. = France
/ French, Ger. = Germany, It. = Italy / Italian

6.  其他:etc. = et cetera (等), Xmas. = Christmas, min. = minimum /
minor, max. = maximum, pc. = piece, Ltd. = Limited, num. =number / numbers
(No. = Number 第几号之意)
-------------------------------------------------
3.2.2 Acronym (只取首字母的缩写词):

1. 公元:A.D. = Anno Domin(公元),B.C. = Before Christ(公元前)

2. 邮政:G.P.O. = General Post Office, C.O.D.= Cash on Delivery, P.O. /
p.o. = Postal Order, R.T.S. = Return To Sender

3, 时间:a.m. /A.M. = ante meridiem 上午, p.m. / P.M.= post meridiem下午

4. 国名:U.K. = United Kingdom, U.S.A. = United States of America

5. 其他:F.O.C. = Free Of Charge, R.I.P. = Rest In Peace 愿他安息, r.p.m.=
Revolution Per Minute, P.T.O. / p.t.o. = Please Turn Over 翻下页,P.T.A. =
Parent-Teachers' Association 家长教师协会
-------------------------------------------------
也许是大家觉得缩写词后加个小黑点是件麻烦事,因此有些就干脆省掉它,下面是一
些不加句点的缩写词:

1. 组织名:UN, UNESCO, WTO

2. 数目:$75 , 2nd , 5th , Henry V

3. 常用词:memo , math , exam , lab , dorm , TV , CD , VCD ,DVD,
PS =Postscript 附言,SARS (现在是无人不知其大名的了!)

4. 度量衡: mm , cm , km , g , mg , ml , kw , kv
====================================================
3.3 句号用在数字方面:

3.3.1 表示小数点:

1. $12.50 , ¥200.20 , RM4.45, 50.45%, 5.2 kg
----------------------------------------------------
3.3.2 用于大纲列表:

例: I. 第一学期体育教学
  1. 游泳
    a. 自由式

注意:在括号内的数字或字母,不可加句号:
(3), (b), (Iv)
====================================================

其实Period一点也不好玩的,你说是吗?

标点(Punctuation)好好玩(四)

四、Ellipsis (...) 省略号

英文省略号的写法是三个小黑点(...),而中文是则是六点(……)。用法如下:

4.1 句子删节

4.1.1 表示在引号中的删节:

1. “...into that good night.”

2. “You won't...” Lois began. (错误:“You won't...,”)

3. “Then you'd blast off...on screen, as if you were looking out...of a
spaceship.”
-------------------------------------------------

4.1.2 在句子中间删节,跟着省略号的字母必须小写:

1. He agreed that prices were...reasonable.
-------------------------------------------------

4.1.3  句尾删节,要点四点(....):

1. She disagreed with the decision.... (最后一点是句号? )
=================================================

4.2  表示在对话或叙述中的停顿、犹豫、踌躇、语气强调等:

1. Clutching at his throat, he gasped, “Help...help me.”

2. He seemed nervous...stared straight ahead...kept twitching and
jerking...then he ran for shelter.

3. You mean...I...uh...we have a test today?
=================================================

4.3 段落的删节

4.3.1 删节一段以上,以一行小点代之:

This is paragraph 1.

................................. (表示删节第2-4段)

This is paragraph 5.
---------------------------------------------------

4.3.2 如果段落删节开始开某段的中间,点四点表示下面的文字被删节:

This is.... (这里点四点,表示从这里开始删节)

....................(这里点一行,表示其中的段落被删节)

This is paragraph 5.
---------------------------------------------------

4.3.3  如果删节的最后一段只省略中间的一部份,最后一段的开始处点三点:

This is paragraph 1.

................................

...is paragraph 5. (...表示它之前的第五段文字被省略)
====================================================

4.4 表示连结 (以一长串小黑点表示)

4.4.1 用于目录:

Chapter 3.........................................page 45

====================================================
五、Quotation Marks 引号 (当没有特别说明时为双引号“” Single Quotation
Marks单引号‘ ’)

5.1 直接引用,这是最常见的用法:

5.1.1 引号内的引用句为原句:

1. She said, “Hurry up.” 她说:“快点儿。” (注意中、英标点用法不同处)

2. “I can come today,” she said, “but not tomorrow.”

3. The sign changed from “Walk,” to “Don't walk,” to “Walk” again
within 30 seconds.

4. “I'm finally tired enough to get to sleep,” she yawned. (这里的引用句
结尾是逗号,不可用句号喔)

5. They shouted,“Congratulations!” through the door.
-----------------------------------------------------
5.1.2 如果引用句本身为陈述句,而整句为问句,那问号就要加在引号之后:

1. Did he say, “I am going to college next year”? (注意是“……”?问号在
引号之外喔)

2. Do you agree with the saying,“A living dog is better than a dead lion”
? (整句是问你同意引号内的那句话吗,所以问号要加在句尾)
------------------------------------------------------
5.1.3 如果引用句本身是个问句,那问号就要加在引号内:

1.  Did he say, “Are you going to college next year?” (这里“……?”这个
问句要放在引号内。不可写成 Did he say, “Are you going to college next
year?”?)

2. She asked, “Will you still be my friend?” (句尾同样不可再加问号喔)
------------------------------------------------------
5.1.4 引用的字或短语如在整句中并无中断,这时就不必加上逗号:

1. The phrase “lovely, dark and deep” begins to suggest ominous
overtones.
------------------------------------------------------
5.1.5 如引用句属于句子的一部份,在引号前加冒号(:):

1. My mother's favorite quote was from Shakespeare:“This above all, to
thine own self be true.”
------------------------------------------------------
5.1.6 如果引用句内又有引用句,那就要用单引号(‘ ’)以示区别:

1. George explained, “I heard her say, ‘Go away!’so I left.”

2. He said, “Mary said,‘Do not treat me that way.’” (注意句尾的句号是
在单引号内,而句尾的单引号和双引号之间不可再加标点)
-------------------------------------------------------
5.1.7 引用句有两段以上时,只在每一段开始用引号(“),直到结束段最后才加引号
(”):

“This is paragraph 1    (这里只用“)
“This is paragraph 2    (这里也只用“)
“This is paragraph 3.” (最后就要用“”)
-------------------------------------------------------
5.1.8 多人对话式引用句,各对话各占一段:

“I'll do my best,”he said. (引用句结尾用的是逗号,而不是句号,因为接着有he
said)
“How old is he?”she asked.
“According to his passport he's thirty-one.” (这里的引用句结尾用句号,因
为没有he said)
“And what is his real name?”
“Wilson.”
“Edward Wilson,”she said softly.
==================================================
5.2  引用句属“无声对话”,加不加引号都可以:

1. Oh, what a beautiful morning, Curly said to himself. (Oh, what a
beautiful morning 这句话是Curly 对自己说的,并没发出声音,不必加上引号)

2.  “Oh, what a beautiful morning!” Curly said to himself. (加上引号也
行)
==================================================
5.3  间接引用语不可加上引号:

1. The President said that NAFTA would eventually be a boon to small
businesses in both countries. (The President said 后面的话并非原话,因此不
必加上引号)

2, Professor Villa told her students the textbooks were not yet in the
bookstore.
==================================================
5.4  文章、报告、评论、短篇故事、诗歌、戏剧、电影等标题/篇名都用引号

5.4.1 在句子中提到的标题或篇名用双引号(“”):

1. My favorite short story is “The Treasure.” (句尾的句号放在引号内是美国
式的;英国式的则放在引号外“The Treasure”.)

2. My favorite peom is Robert Frost's “Design.”

3. The poem “Trees” was written by Joyce Kilmer. (“Trees”在句中,不可加
其他标点)

4. “The Time Machine” is my favorite film.

5. What do you think of William Shakespeare's “Henry V”? (除了句号及逗
号,其他如问号等的位置,须视句子而定)
--------------------------------------------------------
5.4.2  在报章标题中出现的引号,应为单引号(‘ ’):

1. Congress Cries ‘Shame!’
===================================================
5.5 特殊词汇

5.5.1 当引号加在一个专门术语或特别强调的词汇上时,引号前不可加逗号:

1. Doctors refer to the red blemish as an “hemangioma.” (不可写成...as
an, “hemangioma.”)

2. Sartre's treatment of ‘being’,as opposed to his treatment of
‘non-being’, has been thoroughly described in Kaufmann's book. (哲学上的
关键概念应用单引号,奇怪喔)

标点(Punctuation)好好玩(五)

六、Colons (:) 冒号

冒号在中文或英文里都是一个相当常见的标点符号,在用法上也大致一样。
注意:
* 冒号前不可有空格
* 冒号后可加一空格
* 冒号后千万不要加- (如 :-)
---------------------------------------------------
大家先来看看下面的例子,你以为句子中的冒号用法对吗?

For our camping trip, I brought: a lantern, a sleeping bag, food, water, and
a flashlight.

如果你的答案是对,那你就错了!这是一个常见的冒号用法上的错误。正确的用法,看
下去就会明白了。这里且让我们从最简单的用法开始吧。
------------------------------------------
6.1 冒号用在公函上收信人的称呼

Dear Sir: (你看,冒号前没有任何空格喔)

We were very honored to have you come visit our company.
============================================
6.2 冒号用于分开标题和副标题(当一标题需要进一步说明时所加上的副标题)

1. Math Applications: Using Calculus to Determine the Age of Rocks
(标题Math Applications和副标题Using Calculus to Determine the Age of Rocks之
间以冒号隔开)

2. I recommend Chinnery's book Oak Furniture: the British Tradition. (Oak
Furniture是书名,the British Tradition是副标题)
=============================================
6.3 冒号必须加在完整句子或独立子句之后

最常见的冒号用法上的错误就是将冒号放在完整句或独立子句的中间。看看下面的例子


Every repairman must have: a screwdriver, a hammer, and a saw.

其中Every repairman must have是不是有完整的意思呢?显然意思并不完整。因此句
子中的冒号是多馀的。如果要用冒号的话,上面句子应该写成下面的样子:

There are three things every repairman must have: a screwdriver, a hammer,
and a saw.

看看冒号前There are three things every repairman must have,它是不是有完整的
意思呢?“每一位修理员必备三样东西”可见意思是完整的,虽然你还会问是哪三样东
西呢?因此冒号后面就列出那三样东西了。

现在我们知道在冒号前必须是的完整意思的句子或子句,跟冒号后的可不一定是个句子
或子句。它可能是一个列表,甚至可能只是一个单词。因此前面举的那个例子错在哪里
也就明白了吧。下面给出它的正误句:

错误句:For our camping trip, I brought: a lantern, a sleeping bag, food,
water, and a flashlight.

正确句:For our camping trip, I brought various essential items: a lantern,
a sleeping bag, food, water, and a flashlight.
--------------------------------------------
6.3.1 一些例子

1. Africa is facing a terrifying problem: perpetual drought(持续干旱). (冒号
后说明非洲所面对的困境)

2. The situation is clear: if you have unprotected sex with a stranger, you
risk AIDS. (说明你的处境是什么)

3. She was sure of one thing: she was not going to be a housewife. (说明她
肯定的是什么事)

4. We found the place easily: your directions were perfect. (说明为什么那么
容易找到那个地方)

5. Several friends have provided me with inspiration: Tim, Ian, and above
all, Larry. (说明是哪几个朋友)
------------------------------------------------
6.3.2 反过来也行

1. Saussure, Sapir, Bloomfield, Chomsky: all these have revolutionized
linguistics in one way or another.
================================================
6.4 冒号用于注明引用圣经的章节

1. The story of Menahem is found in II Kings 15:1422.
================================================
6.5 冒号用于表示比例

1. Among students of French, women outnumber men by more than 4:1. (4:1=4比
1,用文字说就是by more than four to one)
================================================
6.6 冒号用于表示时间(美国式)

1. 2:15 (两点十五分) (英国式 2.15)
2. 11:30 (A) (上午十一点三十分) (英国式 11.30 am)
======================================================

你说英文冒号的用法和中文的有什么不同呢?


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资料更新时间: 2003-11-22 3:09:00
资料标题:《英文语法拉杂谈-标点(Punctuation)好好玩(1-5)》
检索关键字:英语语法,标点符号,Punctuation
资料编号:578
资料来源:不详
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