徐州雅思培训雅思口语必须要了解的连接词

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我们大部分的考生在雅思的口语考试汇总,使用的连接词还局限在and,but,so这几个很简单的词汇上面。而这也让考官对于考生的词汇量产生了怀疑。要知道,在考试中恰当的使用连接词,不仅仅能够让文章具有多样性,而且对于内容的连贯以及分数的提高都是有着很好的帮助的。

徐州雅思培训雅思口语必须要了解的连接词

【徐州雅思培训】雅思口语必须要了解的连接词:

一、并列关系

并列关系在雅思口语考试的运用一般是在回答Why的提问时,当考生想阐述的理由不止一个,为了使自己的答案有逻辑,也为了让考官能够GET到自己的论点,通常,小烤鸭们都会选择一些表示首先,其次,第三,…,最后的词来引导句子,常见的表达方式有这些:

首先:Firstly,First of all,What I want to mention firstly is that…,To start with,To begin with,For one thing,My first point is that…

其次:Secondly,In the next place,Moreover,My second point (reason) is that…

第三:Thirdly,Furthermore,Besides

最后:In the end,Finally,Lastly,In the end,My last point (reason) isthat…,Last but not the least

二、因果关系

因果关系,顾名思义,就是要解释原因,常见的因果关系的用法有这些:

最简单就是so,because,如果想避免重复,使自己的回答更加出彩,我们还可以使用这些:due to,because of,owing to,thanks to,as a result of,in consequence of,on account of,in view of,hence,therefore,thus,accordingly和consequently等。在口语中,有的时候一些native speaker会用cause或者coz来代替because,在口语考试中这种非正式用法可以使用,但是切记不要使用的过于频繁。

三、让步关系

表示让步关系的用法一般有这些:

Although,Though,Regardless of,Even if,Even though,As long as等。

四、转折关系

转折关系是指一个句子里后面的分句没有顺延着前面的分句说下去,而是与它相反,我们第一反应想到的表示转折关系的词就是But,除此之外,英语中表示转折关系的用法有这些:

Although,Despite,However,In spite of,Instead,Nevertheless,On the contrary,Otherwise,Though,While,Yet

五、递进关系

英语中表示递进关系的词语有:

not only…but also…,as well(as),at the sametime,besides,further more,in addition(to),like wise,more over,worse still

同时还有一些句子可以表示递进关系,以下的用法一般出现在说完一个Point以后打算进入下一个Point之前,比如:

Another point I would love to say is that…

On top of that I can also add that…

And I shouldn’t forget to mention that …

In addition to what I’ve just said, I can add that…

Apart from what I’ve mentioned, another key point is that

六、修饰关系

口语中表示修饰关系,一般都是对人,对事,对物,对时间以及对地点的修饰,通常一般会有从句的形式来修饰先行词,常用来表示修饰关系的词语有:

that,who,which,when,where

七、对比关系

对比关系是指一句话的前半句和后半句形成了对比,口语中常见表示对比关系的用法有:

On the other hand,while,Whereas, In contrast,On the contrary

八、举例和泛指

在口语考试中,我们为了使自己的内容不要听起来过于苍白,因此经常加一些例子是自己的内容听起来更加丰富,英语中常见的举例用法有:

like,such as,Take…for example,In some cases,and stuff like that,and things like that,or something like that

九、其他

as well,as well as,in terms of,instead of,rather than

十、不是连词的表达

英语口语中,我们还可以用一些比较高大上的用法来给自己加分,比如:

tend to,basically,actually

十一、谈及;谈到;关于

Speaking of;talking about;when it comes to;as far as concerned;as regards;regarding;通常用于帮助提示转移话题,或转换另一个角度或方面。

例1:Speaking of those old people who live alone,I guess their children would support them financially,and visit them on a regular basis.

例2:As for how I felt about our city museum,I think it serves significant purpose as far as education is concerned.

例3:When it comes to the drawbacks,I think students’ study efficiency may be low since there is no teacher around to supervise and motivate them.

上面就是徐州朗阁的老师针对同学们的雅思口语考试中连接词使用情况的相关介绍。对此,我们老师指出,各位同学最好在平时多多的对口语进行练习,熟练使用上面的连接词,这样在考试的时候才能够真正的发挥出来,不至于临时抱佛脚。造成考试出现问题。

干货!新托福写作高分之独立写作如何构思布局

托福独立写作要求考生针对某个问题提出自己的观点,并在30分钟的时间内写出一篇短文。很多考生在写作时感到困惑,不知道如何构思文章。下面老师通过具体的例题教给大家如何构思托福独立写作的方法。

一、审题的“精确性”

根据对过去几年独立写作考题的分析,发现有90%以上的题目属于“支持/反对”型。

例:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Because the change of the society is so rapidly, people are less happy or less satisfied with their life than people did in the past time.

而剩下的则是由“对比论述型”构成的。

例:

Some people think children should spend most of their time in studying and playing while others think they should help their parents with the household chores. What’s your opinion?

在审题时,考生必须首先把题目通读1-3遍,彻底把握题目主旨后,再进行段落布局。在这里,结合自己的经验给大家一些建议:首先,判断题目是否包含“绝对”含义的词,若有,则按照上篇讲过的建议布局,若没有,则对于同意或者反对的理由进行快速的brain storming, 然后根据分论点的数量及论点的可延展性来敲定立场:

Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

Disagree:

1) Endangered animals are valuable because of their limited quantities

2) Environment balance

3) Endangered animals sometimes stand for the country, so they are more valuable than farmlands

Agree:

1) life quality is the top priority

2) endangered animals can be raised in the zoos

经过一番考量,假如考生得出了上述的一些分论点及想法,这时候,主体段的布局基本就可以敲定大方向了。第一种就是完全反对题目的说法,采用五段式结构布局,每个主体段论证上述三个分论点中的一个;第二种也是反对题目的说法,采用五段式结构布局,但是前2个主体段从三个分论点中选二个去论证,而第三个主体段从“同意”的二个分论点里去选一个,最后的结论还是倾向于反对的。

第三种是采用四段式结构布局,即第一个主体段从三个反对意见中选择二到三个分论点去写,而第二个主体段则从赞同的分论点里去选择,数量上比前一段少一个即可,最后结论还是倾向于反对多一点。这样说是不是有些同学看了会有点“晕”呢?那下面再举个简单点的例子:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television, newspapers, magazines, and other media pay too much attention to the personal lives of famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain your opinion.

Disagree:

1) Most people are common, so they want to know something about famous ones

2) Famous people stand for some fashion

3) Constrain the public figures

4) Celebrities can improve the national cohesion and unity

又经过了几分钟思考,我们得出了上述的四个分论点,但是一时半会赞同的理由实在是想不出。若考试的时候遇到这种情况,千万别犹豫不决,马上从已经想好的观点里面进行挑选。于是,这个题目我们就采用完全反对的立场,以五段式结构布局全文,主体段的分论点从上述四点中挑选三个展开论述即可。这样一来,大家是不是明白一点了呢?

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to 18 year-old) teenage children. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

Agree:

Parents make decision for children.

1) Parents have more experience

2) 15-18 years old children are not adults, so they can’t take responsibility

还有一种情况就是我们只能想出两个分论点,这时候考生应该果断采用四段式布局,而这一次,两个主体段都分别论述一个同意的理由,而在结尾时,可以顺便提一些反对的理由,这样也不失为一种灵活的方法,希望考生们可以借鉴。

二、分论点的排列原则

提醒大家,在布局的时候我们不是随意编排分论点的先后顺序,而是需要有一定的逻辑性和合理性。一般说来,五段式的三个主体段,若都是同意或者都是反对的理由的话,一般这些分论点有两种逻辑顺序,即第一种按照“重要性”来排,将你认为最主要的理由放在第一个主体段中详细论证;第二种是按照“小到大”的原则,即个人方面的理由先写,然后再是家庭,公司,最后再是社会,国家等。

倘若所有的论点都是在一个范围内的,比如都是属于个人的论点,则这个时候要看这些分论点后续的论证内容的多少,比如某一个分论点你既举得出例子,又可以进行对比或者因果论述的话那肯定应该先写这个分论点,若某一个分论点后续能够阐述的理由只有一句话的时候那就应该果断地将其排在后面写。若文章是四段式的结构,则在一个主体段中的排列顺序和前面讲的原则是一致的。

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Tony老师简介


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亲手教学培养出多个托福阅读听力满分学生,创造2个月托福阅读从10分到30分,听力从8分到29分的奇迹
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托福考试成绩多次115分以上,并且听力、阅读、写作多次获得满分
准确使用工科思维,定位学生问题,制定高效训练计划,提高英文核心能力及托福成绩


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从6月21日开始,每天早上7:30,晚上10:30(除周六周日)助教带领大家在微信群听写单词


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托福&GMAT如何同时备考?

托福&GMAT如何同时备考?


托福&GMAT如何同时高效备考?

留学党的时间忙碌又稀缺,既要保证学校的GPA不低,还要头疼文书(PS、CV、RL、Essay),更烧脑的是托福、雅思、GRE、GMAT的准备。很多同学是两门考试同时准备,比如:托福+GMAT,一语言考试,一商科思维考试,烧脑烧得够够的!如何在这两门考试里面切换自如?更高效的利用稀缺的时间,这是每个留学wang要重视的问题~

6月23日,【托福&GMAT如何同时备考】公开课正在报名中,老师教你怎么做到游刃有余准备TG~ 




6月23日公开课

主题:如何同时高效备考托福&GMAT

主讲:Melantha老师

时间:2016年6月23日下午4点到5点

地点:YY87702993

>>课程报名方式

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托福&GMAT如何同时备考?

托福&GMAT如何同时备考?

每天100个小伙伴加入小申托福在线备考战队,

你还在等什么?

点击【阅读原文】进入小申托福在线做题,带你预见想象的100+…

托福写作,是什么在拖你的后腿?

托福写作,是什么在拖你的后腿?

很多考生经历过好几次托福考试,但发现自己的托福写作分数总是提不上去。你们有想过是什么原因吗?其实真正的“元凶”是语法。现在,大部分学生都忽视了语法的作用,但是语法才是写作的根基。大家都知道中文注重意合,而英文注重形合。所以说,掌握语法,并在托福写作中灵活使用语法,必定事半功倍哦。

托福写作,是什么在拖你的后腿?

下面小航就来和大家探讨一下写作中常犯的一些语法错误。
1
作文中的名词单复数错误


? A great many student would benefit from the investment on improving schol.
  
? Few parent would like to permit their child to make any mistake.

? Environmental problem are beyond the ability of individual.


上面这三句话中,都出现了共同的错误,就是本来应该是复数的名词却写成了单数形式。


2
主谓不一致错误


? A quantity of people concerns about how to solve the severe problem of air contamination.

? Restricted by methods, students has to be influenced by their teachers, even though the teachers are not outstanding.


英语不同于汉语,汉语中的谓语动词是不会有任何变化的。比如我说一个人在吃饭和一万个人在吃饭,吃就是吃,不会有吃s和吃之分。可是在英语中,谓语动词要根据主语的单复数情况进行变化。在上面的两个例句中,主语都是复数,而谓语动词却选择了单三形式,显然是不正确的。


3
时态错误


? In the past, the major way for young people to learn knowledge is attending classes.

? When I study in college, I have no choice but to spend more than 10 hours a day on academic study.


除了主谓一致之外,英语另一个我们汉语不具有的特点就是时态问题。过去时,过去完成时,一般现在时,将来时,正在进行时。。。。各种各样的时态也是我们要数量掌握的。在上面的例句中,所犯错误即为将过去时的动词写成了一般现在时。


4
词性误用


? No one can negative the importance of money.

? Family members play significance role in our journey s of success.


词性误用同样是托福考生常犯的一种错误,因为英语单词的名词形式,形容词形式,副词形式很多时候是非常相近的,如果我们对语法掌握或者对于单词本身掌握不够扎实的话,很容易出这种错误。


5
there be 句型误用


? There are a great many parents require their children to learning music and art since they are at the age of five.

? There are a large number of students spend more than ten hours a day on learning English in CAU.


There be 句型是我们在写作中经常用的一种句型,可惜这种巨型很多考生并不能真正掌握。在there be后面如果要加动词,千万不要出现例句所犯的错误,要时刻记得be动词后面应该加的是-ing形式。


在写作中,框架和语法共同构成一篇写作。所以可见语法是很重要的。在写作中可以出现一些小的语法错误,但是出现低级的语法错误是大忌!


以上的几点内容希望同学们能够熟记于心。最后,祝愿同学们在托福写作中取得高分。

托福写作,是什么在拖你的后腿?

新航道致力于帮助学生提高英语能力,决胜雅思、托福、SAT等出国考试,分享励志成长、英语学习、考试信息、留学动态,一站式英语学习!微信号:zz_newchannel

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托福写作,是什么在拖你的后腿?

托福口语秘笈:从此再也不卡顿!

托福口语秘笈:从此再也不卡顿!
很多托福考生会说:

  我一到考场上就紧张,一紧张就总是说“呃和啊”,最后总是说不完,这口语成绩也一直提不上去。求解救!

  的确,这真的是Pt遇到过的一个特别突出的问题,而且确实非常影响最后得分。因此,今天特意为大家翻墙扒来一些实用tips进行专门讲解

  希望能为大家助一臂之力!

  Tips on Public Speaking: Eliminating the Dreaded "Um"——From Harvard Extentsion School

  作者简介

  Steven D. Cohen

  Steven D. Cohen is an award-winning speaker who leads career and academic workshops on public speaking at Harvard Extension School. Through the Harvard Professional Development Programs, he teaches the programs Introduction to Public Speaking: Effective Presentation Skills and Advanced Public Speaking: Persuasive Communication.

  文章正文

  It is difficult for me to watch political speeches. After all, I know that I am going to hear one alarming word over and over again. It’s not “debt,” “deficit,” or “downturn.” It’s “um.”

  对于政治演讲,我最不能忍的就是他们一遍又一遍地重复“um”

  Filler words like “um” may seem natural in everyday speech, but they do not belong in formal presentations or speeches. Powerful public speakers work hard to eliminate words such as“um,” “uh,” “well,” “so,” “you know,” “er,” and “like”from their vocabulary so that their listeners can focus solely on their message.Through practice and persistence, you can too.

  所谓的filler words形式很多样,但他们不应出现在任何正式的场合(托福考试算是半正式吧,其实也像是一个presentation一样的感觉)因为这些词都会分散你的听众们的注意力。通过不断的练习,你一定可以消灭这些不必要的filler words!

  SO, LIKE, WHY AM I SAYING “UM”?Why do we use filler words? The simplest answer is that we have been conditioned to answer questions immediately from an early age. When our mother or father asked us a question, we were sure to answer right away—either because we wanted to show respect or because we were afraid of what would happen if we didn’t answer. Consequently, we feel the urge to speak when spoken to.为什么会说Um? 因为我们总是急于回答问题,不赶紧回答就好像不尊重人似的。于是……总是觉得很紧迫,得赶紧说。Some people argue that filler words serve an important purpose such as making a speaker sound more “natural” or “real.” In fact, Michael Erard wrote a book on this very subject. But just because filler words are fairly common in everyday speech does not mean that they are useful.In fact, they often detract from the listener’s ability to understand a particular message.有人觉得um呀uh呀让演讲者听上去更自然和真实。其实不然,常说不代表它们就有必要(存在未必即合理),反而它们还常常会让听者被干扰。There are two places where filler words commonly appear: at the beginning of a statement and in between ideas. See what happens the next time you answer a question. You might say “um” or “uh” right away without even thinking. Then when you are finished discussing your first idea, you may be tempted to use another filler word as you decide what to say next.这些um uh的词,常常才会出现在句子的开头,或者在两个点之间(其实就是当我们在思考的时候)

  When you use a filler word such as “um,” you are thinking verbally. In other words, you are verbalizing your thought process. Armed with this information, it is easy to realize thatthe best way to avoid using filler words is to pause.If you are not speaking, you can’t say “um”!

  喜欢说Um的人,其实是在用语言表述自己的思考过程。所以,最简单粗暴的办法就是,在自己特别想说um的时候,停住!强迫自己:只要不说话,就不要有Um! REMOVING “UM” FROM YOUR VOCABULARY

  The next time you are asked a question, take a couple seconds to think about what you want to say. This pause serves two important purposes: it will help you begin powerfully, and it will help you avoid using a filler word. Pause, think, answer.

  下一次,提问前先思考,让自己说出来的内容更有力度的同时,有效规避说Um的情况

  The same public speaking technique applies when you are transitioning from one idea to another. While you may be tempted to fill the silence between ideas with a filler word, remember to pause and give yourself a moment to think about what you want to say next. It is important that you don’t begin speaking until you are ready. Remember: Pause, think, answer.

  在切换观点/理由的时候,也可以这样,停顿几秒,给自己一些思考的时间,没想好的话暂时先不说。【Pt认为,在考场上,我们可以1-2秒的停顿来切换思路。总好过不停的um…】

  It may feel unnatural to pause, especially since you have responded to questions right away for your entire life. I assure you that you will deliver more powerful responses and reduce your chance of using filler words if you give yourself time to think.

  一开始你一定会觉得停顿很别扭,因为我们从小到大都是立刻回答问题。但我敢肯定,想一下,比较好;慢一点,比较快!

  CAN’T SEEM TO SHAKE THE HABIT? ASK FOR HELP.

  If you need help to overcome your “um” problem, consider asking a co-worker, family member, or friend to point out when you use filler words. You also could record an upcoming presentation and then watch yourself in action. You may be amazed at how often you say “um” or “uh”!

  如果真的需要帮助,不如找同事、家人或朋友指出你在什么时候使用过filler words,或者你也可以反复听自己的录音【所以,一定要使用“亦鸥托福app”来练习口语呀,收听自己的录音+得到他人的点评,感受一下自己究竟是在哪里曾经呃或啊】

  Although we live in a fast-paced society that seemingly demands instant answers, we must use the pause to our advantage. We may feel pressure to answer right away, but ultimately, we should only speak when we are ready.

  Do you agree? I would like to hear what you think so leave a comment. But, please, don’t use any “ums.”






托福口语秘笈:从此再也不卡顿!






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诺恩教育(Nuoen education)成立于2010年8月,旗下教育课程包含雅思、托福、SAT、GRE、GMAT等出国语言考试培训,以“国际英语语言课程”作为标准化核心课程进行教学,设置了完整全面的个性化教学支持管理体系,并辅以西方文化沉浸式的教学化境。具有雄厚的师资力量,优良的教学硬件,专业的课程服务。


诺恩教育–优秀的教师团队,激发你的无限可能。


诺恩教育教师均有海外名校教育背景,聘用流程将严格筛选,并要求每年一线赴考两次,全程回顾考试经验实践,组织教研讨论,以此来了解考试最新变化趋势,给考生带来最新考试变化趋势。获悉官方同步考试动向与政策解读,定期进行学术培训,力求能够为学员带来更多考试最新信息,最终取得高分。


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托福口语秘笈:从此再也不卡顿!
托福口语秘笈:从此再也不卡顿!



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留学 | 托福考试概况

留学 | 托福考试概况
托福考试概况
留学 | 托福考试概况
托福考试简介
2005年9月,美国教育考试服务中心ETS在全球推出了一种全新的综合英语测试方法,即能够反映在一流大专院校教学和校园生活中对语言实际需求的新托福考试,即TOEFL iBT(Internet Based Test)。
新托福由四部分组成,分别是阅读(Reading)、听力(Listening)、口试(Speaking)、写作(Writing)。每部分满分30分,整个试题满分120分。
留学 | 托福考试概况
阅读(Reading):有三篇文章
与老托福不同的是,考生不需要在答题之前通读全文,而是在做题的过程中分段阅读文章。每篇文章对应有12-14道试题,均为选择题。除了最后一道试题之外,其他试题都是针对文章的某一部分提问。最后一题针对整篇文章提问,要求考生从多条选择项中挑选若干项对全文进行总结或归纳。
听力(Listening):取消了短对话
由两篇较长的校园情景对话和四篇课堂演讲组成,课堂演讲每篇长约5-6分钟。由于是机考,考生在听录音资料之前无法得知试题。在播放录音资料时,电脑屏幕上会显示相应的背景图片。考生可以在听音过程中记笔记。考生不能复查、修改已递交的答案。这个部分持续大约50分钟。
留学 | 托福考试概况
口试(Speaking):
这个部分共有6题,持续约20分钟。第一、二题要求考生就某一话题阐述自己的观点。第三、四题要求考生首先在45秒内阅读一段短文,随后短文隐去,播放一段与短文有关的对话或课堂演讲。最后,要求考生根据先前阅读的短文和播放的对话或课堂演讲回答相关问题,考生有30秒钟的准备时间,然后进行60秒钟的回答。第五、六题要求考生听一段校园情景对话或课堂演讲,然后回答相关问题。考生有20秒钟的准备时间,之后进行60秒钟的回答。考生可以在听音过程中记笔记以帮助答题。在准备和答题时,屏幕上会显示倒计时的时钟。
写作(Writing)要求考生在1小时内完成两篇作文
其中一篇作文,要求考生在30分钟内就某一话题阐述自己的观点,字数要求为300字以上。另一篇则要求考生首先阅读一篇文章,五分钟以后,文章隐去,播放一段与文章有关的课堂演讲。课堂演讲列举了一些论据反驳文章中的论点、论据。随后要求考生在20分钟内写一篇作文,总结课堂演讲的论点、论据,并陈述这些论点、论据是如何反驳文章的论点、论据的。在写作时,文章会重新显示在屏幕上。这篇作文不要求考生阐述自己的观点。
留学 | 托福考试概况
加试
 一般实际考试中,考生往往会在听力或阅读部分碰到加试试题,也有可能阅读、听力两部分同时被加试。
       考试采取机考形式,新托福考试的考试时间和各部分试题数目都是固定的。但该考试不采用计算机出题的方式,即题目难度与上一题回答是否准确无关。
新托福听、说、读、写各部分满分30分,共计120分
考生参加完新托福考试后,会收到分数报告,标明其整体英语水平和各单项语言技能的成绩,显示考生是否已具备在英语语言环境中参加学术学习并在学习中取得成功所需的技能。随着分数报告,新托福会提供一个诊断报告,说明考生哪些技能已达到标准,哪些还需提高,从而使考生本人和教师了解到考生的英语语言学习要求。
留学 | 托福考试概况
留学 | 托福考试概况

留学 | 托福考试概况


津味儿托福 | 由体育术语演化而来的常用口语TOP10 by褚春阳

津味儿托福 | 由体育术语演化而来的常用口语TOP10 by褚春阳

口语机经中经常有让考生描述体育类话题的题目,但是很多同学苦于不会用英文来地道表达。相信很多体育迷们和我一样,在观看英美的赛事直播时,都喜欢听原汁原味的英文解说。那种措辞的酣畅淋漓,语调的抑扬顿挫,以及原汁原味的代入感,是中文解说没办法提供给我们的。而英文解说的另一大看点(听点),就是那些体育术语的运用。远到南美足球解说员声嘶力竭的”GOAL~~~~~~~~~”, 近到CCTV张卫平指导的口头禅”inside-out”、”high-low”,都极大地丰富了我们的观赛体验。其实,很多原本只在运动场上使用的词汇和短语,已经逐渐的流入到我们的日常生活用语之中。今天,我就来为大家总结十大由体育术语演化而来的常用口语。同学们在以后的交流或者口语考试中,可以适当的根据情况灵活运用,必然能大大提高自己的印象分。


津味儿托福 | 由体育术语演化而来的常用口语TOP10 by褚春阳

No.10: Bail Out

Bail Out这个短语出自于水上运动项目:帆船。这个短语的原意是“从船舱中往外舀水”。由于帆船项目在比赛时,船身经常要以比较大的角度倾斜,因此船舱当中进水是经常的事情。运动员在条件允许的时候,经常要把进的水舀出去,从而减轻船体的重量以便加快速度。

Bail Out的原意,到今天用的已经不多了。日常生活中这个短语的意思有几种:

  1. (从资金上)给予帮助。如:

The government bailed the company out. 政府拉了这个公司一把。

    在经济不景气的今天,这个词的出场率很高。在金融危机最厉害的2008年,韦氏大词典更是将bailout(名词形式)评选为年度热门词汇,因为搜索它的人实在太多了!

  2. 保释。如

She bailed him out for $500. 她用500美金将他保释出来。

这个用法相信经常看美剧的同学都会比较熟悉,不多说了。


津味儿托福 | 由体育术语演化而来的常用口语TOP10 by褚春阳

No.9: Playbook

Playbook出自于美式橄榄球运动中。因为美式橄榄球的战术非常复杂多样,每个球队都要设计出上百种不同的战术打法和阵型安排,每一种称作一个play。而上百种play很难单单凭教练员和运动员的大脑去记忆,那么就把这些play都记录在一本册子里面,成为了playbook。可以想象得到,playbook里面的内容是一个球队最大的秘密。

日常生活中的playbook,记录的则不是橄榄球的战术。大家能猜得到记录的是什么内容吗?对了,记录的就是千奇百怪的把妹方式。在美剧How I Met Your Mother里面,花花公子Barney Stinson就有这么一本Playbook,帮助他勾搭不同的MM,并且最终还促成了他和Robin的婚姻。

Playbook: 愿意是橄榄球的战术手册,现多指把妹姿势大全。如:

  I’ve got a playbook to get my girlfriend back. 为把女友追回来,我的套路多了去了。


津味儿托福 | 由体育术语演化而来的常用口语TOP10 by褚春阳

No.8: Hail Mary Pass

又是一个美式橄榄球中的术语。原意是指比赛时间临近结束,控球的一方比分落后,但所剩的时间已经不足以再让他们按部就班的推进了。这时候球队的四分卫(Quarterback)会让所有的接球队员跑向对方的阵区,自己则尽全力把球扔向阵区,希望自己的队友能够乘人多混乱之际,接住传球而达阵得分。这是在没有其他办法下,落后一方做出的绝望一击。这种传球因为距离太远、球速太慢,成功率非常低。

这个短语现在通常在描述政治运动的时候用到。某候选人在获胜无望的情况下祭出的最后一个大招,试图力挽狂澜。比如:

  Many commentators and the electorate thought Mitt Romney’s choice of Paul Ryan as candidate for vice-presidential spot on the 2012 Republican ticket was a Hail Mary pass.

  很多选民和评论家认为,罗姆尼选择保罗·莱恩作为2012共和党竟选副总统的人选,是绝望的孤注一掷。


津味儿托福 | 由体育术语演化而来的常用口语TOP10 by褚春阳

No.7: Rain Check


相信这是本次TOP10里面中国学生最耳熟能详的短语,不同学习阶段的不同老师,很多都拿这个短语作为美国“俚语”的例子讲给大家。Rain Check来源于棒球运动。由于下雨对棒球运动的影响较大,因此一旦比赛过程中突然下雨、比赛临时取消的话,主办方会给到场的球迷发一张rain check,凭借此票可以在比赛延期举行的时候免费入场。

现在生活中则所有表示延期的情况都可以用rain check来表达,如:

  I’m too tired to go to the movie tonight, but I’ll take a rain check.

  今晚太累了,不去看电影了。改天去吧。


津味儿托福 | 由体育术语演化而来的常用口语TOP10 by褚春阳

No.6: Head Start


出自赛马运动。赛马运动在起跑的时候,所有赛道的栏杆突然同时打开,由于马匹和棋手的素质不同,经常造成某一匹马领先一个马头的距离起跑的情况。这就叫做head start。在现实中,则泛指由于某种原因,造成某一方在竞争开始的时候领先一筹的情形。例如:

  We have a head start, because they faxed their contract to us and mailed it to the others.

  他们把合同传真给了我们,而给其他公司的时候却是邮寄的,所以我们一开始就拿到了领先优势。


津味儿托福 | 由体育术语演化而来的常用口语TOP10 by褚春阳

No.5: Long Shot


这也是影视剧中经常出现的短语之一。出自射击/射箭运动。字面意思就是“远距离射击”。距离远,自然命中目标的可能性就小。因此它用来形容很困难、或者很难成功的事情。

  例句:I know it’s a long shot, but we have to try.  我知道机会不大,但我们还是要试试看。



津味儿托福 | 由体育术语演化而来的常用口语TOP10 by褚春阳

No.4: Get The Hang Of

非常地道的口语词组。本意出自于冲浪运动,hang ten和hang five是冲浪时候的两种基本站法,分别有10根脚趾和5根脚趾伸出冲浪板的前端之外。因此get the hang则是说掌握了冲浪时站法的基本要领。后来引申到日常口语里,则表示开始掌握了某项技能的基本要领。

  例句:After three weeks of using this computer I think I’ve finally got the hang of it.

        在用了三周这台电脑之后,我觉得我终于开始掌握它了。


津味儿托福 | 由体育术语演化而来的常用口语TOP10 by褚春阳

No.3: Tackle

Tackle意为“抢断”或者“拦截”,主要是美式橄榄球和足球中的术语。愿意是指针对对方的持球进攻队员,来进行防守性拦截和破坏。这个词在流入到日常用语之后,情况发生了变化。在日常用语中,tackle更多的是指主动地去攻击、摧毁任务中遇到的难点和障碍。比如在一道经典的托福口语题中,问到学生是喜欢独立完成作业,还是work in a group,我们就可以说:

  I prefer to work on class projects in a group, because we will be able to tackle the assignments as a team. 我更喜欢分小组做作业,因为这样一来我们可以用团队之力扳倒任务大山。


津味儿托福 | 由体育术语演化而来的常用口语TOP10 by褚春阳

No.2 Kick-off

Kick-off(名词)和Kick Off(动词)的意思是“开球”。是美式橄榄球和足球都存在的术语。开球,顾名思义,象征着比赛的开始。因此,在日常口语中,kick-off也指各类活动的开始。

  例句1:The kick-off meeting for this project will be on May 1st.

  这个项目的首次会议定于五月一日。

  例句2:OK class, let’s kick off the semester by talking about the syllabus.

  同学们,学期开始的第一课,让我们首先来看一下课程大纲。



津味儿托福 | 由体育术语演化而来的常用口语TOP10 by褚春阳

No.1: Time-out 

Time-out是“暂停”的意思。相信这是大家最熟悉的体育术语了。篮球、美式橄榄球、棒球、排球等,在比赛中都有暂停时间,用来重新布置战术或调整球员。

日常用语中的time-out继承了“暂停”的意思,不过不仅仅指代比赛中的暂停,任何活动的暂时停止都可以用到这个词。

例句:He took a time-out from campaigning to accompany his mother to dinner.

      他从竞选活动中抽出一点空闲,陪他的妈妈吃饭。

以上就是我为大家总结的十大由体育术语演化而来的常用口语。希望各位同学能熟练掌握这些用法,并且在以后的生活或者考试中能够灵活的运用。





必背托福听力十大经典段子

必背托福听力十大经典段子

必背托福听力十大经典段子
    托福听力段子涉及到多种话题,不过,有些经典话题会重复出现,大家如果能掌握这些话题及相关词汇,就会对托福听力的答题大有帮助。

  托福听力段子1. 文科段子:艺术类音乐

  It may seem strange that we’re discussing music from a Broadway production in this class, "The Lion King" especially, since it’s based on a popular Hollywoodmovie. I mean music preformed for Broadway theater in the heart of New York city surely would seem to be in the western tradition of popular music and not have much in common with the music we have been studying in this course, such as gamelan music of Indonesia, or Zulu chants of South Africa, music that developed outside the western tradition of Europe and America. But in fact, musicians have a long-standing tradition of borrowing front one another’s cultures. And this production’s director intentionally included both western and non-western music. That way, some of the rhythms, instrument, and harmonies typical of non-western music contrast with and complement popular music more familiar to audiences in North America andEurope, music like rock, jazz or Broadway style show tunes. So I want to spend the rest of this class and most of the next one on the music from the show "The Lion King" as a way of summarizing some of the technical distinctions between typical western music and the non-western music that we’ve been studying. Now the African influence on the music is clear. The story takes place inAfrica. So the director got a South African composer to write songs with a distinctly African sound. And the songs even include words from African languages. But we’ll get back to the African influence later. First let’s turn to the music that was written for the shadow puppet scenes in "The Lion King", music based on the Indonesian music used in the shadow puppet theater of that region

  托福听力段子2.理科段子:天文学

  In ancient times, many people believed the earth was a flat disc. Well over 2,000 years ago; the ancient Greek philosophers were able to put forward two good arguments proving that it was not. Direct observations of heavenly bodies were the basis of both these arguments. First, the Greeks knew that during eclipses of the moon the earth was between the sun and the moon, and they saw that during these eclipses, the earth’s shadow on the moon was always round, they realized that this could be true only if the earth was spherical, It the earth was a flat disc, then its shadow during eclipses would not be a prefect circle; it would be stretched out into a long ellipse. The second argument was based on what the Greeks saw during their travels. They noticed that the North Star, or Polaris, appeared lower in the sky when they traveled south, in the more northerly regions, the North Star appeared to them to be much higher in the sky. By the way, it was also from this difference in the apparent position of the North Star that the Greeks first calculated the approximate distance around the circumference of the earth, a figure recorded in ancient documents says 400.000 stadium, that’s the plural of the world stadium. Today, it’s not known exactly what length one stadium represents, but let’s say it was about 200 meters, the length of many athletic stadiums. This would make the Greek’s estimate about twice the figure accepted today, a very good estimate for those writing so long before even the first telescope was invented.

  托福听力段子3. 文科段子:文学名著

  Continuing our survey of the 19th century, let’s take a look now at Harriet Beecher Stowe. Now Stowe is best known for her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a book that details the harshness of plantation life in the south. The book was extremely popular in theUnited Statesas well as in other countries. Ironically though, for all the attention given to Uncle Tom’s Cabin, it’s far from Stowe’s best work. She did write one other novel about life in the south, but much of her best work has nothing with the south at all. In fact, Stowe’s best writing is about village life in theNew England’s states in the 19th century. In recording to the customs of the villages she wrote about, Stowe claimed that her purpose was to reflect the images as realistically as possible. She usually succeeded, for her settings were often described accurately and in detail. In this sense, she was an important forerunner to the realistic movement that became popular later in the 19th century. She was one of the first writers to use local dialect for her characters when they spoke. And she did this for 30 years before Mark Twain popularized the use of local dialect. It makes sense that Stowe would write about New England life, since she was born inConnecticut. As a young woman there, she worked as a teacher. The teaching job helped lead to her first published work, a geography book for children. Later when she was married, her writing helped her support her family financially. Throughout her life, she wrote poems, travel books, biographical sketches and children’s books, as well as novels for adults.

必背托福听力十大经典段子
  托福听力段子4. 生活段子:噪音影响

  I’m grad to see so many of you here. We’ve become really alarmed over the health center by the number of students we are seeing, who are experiencing hearing loss. First, I want to go over some basic about hearing. Then we can take a look at our school environment and see if we can figure out some ways to protect hearing. The leading cause of preventable hearing loss is excessive noise. Too much moderate noise for a long time or some types of intense noise for even a short time can damage hearing. Loudness is measured in units called decibels. One decibel is the lowest sound that the average person can here. Sounds up to 80 decibels generally aren’t harmful. That’s noise like traffic on a busy street. But anything louder than 80 decibels, especially with continuous exposure, may eventually hurt your hearing. Once you are up to around 140 decibels, that’s like a jet plane taking off, then you might even feel pain in your ears. And pains are sure sign that your hearing’s at risk. Even one exposure to a really loud noise at close range can cause hearing loss. So what you need to do is limit your exposure to harmful levels. If you pass along this handout, we can take a look at the decibel level of some common campus sounds. Notice how loud those horns are that people take to football games. They are really dangerous if blown right behind you. Now, let’s try to generate a list of damaging noises

  托福听力段子5. 文科段子:电影艺术

  To get us started this semester I am going to spend the first two classes giving you background lectures about some basic cinematic concepts. Once you are a little more familiar with basic film terminology, we will be ready to look at the history of movies in theUnited States. You’ll be expected to attend showing of films on Tuesday evenings at 7 o’clock in Jennings Auditorium. That’s our lab. Then during our Wednesday seminar, we’ll discuss in depth the movie we saw the night before. We are not covering silent films in this course. We will begin with the first talking motion picture, The Jazz Singer, released in 1927. The next week, we’ll be looking at The Gold Diggers of 1933, a piece that is very representative of the escapist trend in films released during the depression. Some of the films we will be watching will probably be new to you, like Frank Capra’s Why We Fight. Others you might have already seen on TV like Rebel without A Cause starring James Deane, or Stanley Cooper’s Doctor’s Strange Love. However, I hope you see even familiar film with new eye. In the last three weeks of the course, we will be watching films from the 1980s and you’ll choose one of them as a subject for an extensive written critique. We’ll talk more about the requirements of the critique later in this semester

  托福听力段子6. 文科段子:历史发展

  Last time, we outlined how the Civil War finally got started. I want to talk today about the political management of the war on both sides: the north under Abraham Lincoln and the south under Jefferson Davis. An important task for both of these presidents was to justify for their citizens just why the war was necessary. In 1861, on July 4th,Lincolngave his first major speech in which he presented the northern reasons for the war. It was, he said, to preserve democracy.Lincolnsuggested that this war was a noble crusade that would determine the future of democracy through out the world. For him the issue was whether or not this government of the people, by the people could maintain its integrity, could it remain complete and survive its domestic foes. In other words, could a few discontented individuals and by that he meant those who led the southern rebellion, could they arbitrarily break up the government and put an end to free government on earth? The only way for the nation to survive was to crush the rebellion. At the time, he was hopeful that the war wouldn’t last long and the slave owners would be put down forever, but he underestimated how difficult the war would be. It would be harder than any the Americans had thought before or since, largely because the north had to break the will of the southern people, not just by its army. ButLincolnrallied northerners to a deep commitment to the cause. They came to perceive the war as a kind of democratic crusade against southern society.

  托福听力段子7. 文科段子:传媒变迁

  Moving away from newspapers, let’s now focus on magazines. Now the first magazine was a little periodical called the Review and it was started inLondonin 1704. It looked a lot like the newspapers of the time, but in terms of its contents it was much different. Newspapers were concerned mainly with news events but the Review focused on important domestic issues of the day, as well as the policies of the government. Now, inEnglandat the time, people could still be thrown in jail for publishing articles that were critical of the king. And that is what happened to Daniel Defoe. He was the outspoken founder of the review. Defoe actually wrote the first issue of the Review from prison. You see, he had been arrested because of his writings that criticized the policies of the Church of England, which was headed by the king. After his release, Defoe continued to produce the Review and the magazine started to appear on a more frequent schedule, about three times a week. It didn’t take long for other magazines to start popping up. In 1709, a magazine called the Tattler began publication. This new magazine contained a mixture of news, poetry, political analysis and philosophical essays.

必背托福听力十大经典段子
  托福听力段子8. 理科段子:远程教育

  Hi, Lynn. I saw you at registration yesterday. I sailed right through, but you were standing in a long line.

  Yeah. I waited an hour to sign up for a distance-learning course.

  Distance learning? Never heard of it.

  Well, it’s new this semester. It’s only open to psychology majors. But I bet it’ll catch on else where. Yesterday, over a hundred students signed up.

  Well, what is it?

  It’s an experimental course. I registered for child psychology. All I have got to do is watch a twelve-week series of televised lessons. The department shows them seven different times a day and in seven different locations.

  Don’t you ever have to meet with professor?

  Yeah. After each part of the series I have to talk to her and the other students on the phone, you know, about our ideas. Then we’ll meet on campus three times for reviews and exams.

  It sounds pretty non-traditional to me. But I guess it makes sense, considering how many students have jobs. It must really help with their schedules, not to mention how it will cut down on traffic.

  You know, last year my department did a survey and they found out that 80 percent of all psychology majors were employed. That’s why they came up with the program.

  Look, I’ll be working three days a week next semester and it was either cut back on my classes or try this out.

  The only thing is: doesn’t it seem impersonal though? I mean, I miss having class discussions and hearing what other people think.

  Well, I guess that’s why phone contact’s important. Any way, it’s an experiment.

  Maybe I’ll end up hating it.

  Maybe. But I’ll be curious to see how it works up.

  托福听力段子9. 生活段子:游览沼泽地公园

  Welcome to Everglade’s National Park. The Everglade is a watery plain covered with saw grass that’s the home to numerous species of plants and wild life. And one and half million acre is too big to see it all today. But this tour will offer you a good sampling. Our tour bus will stop first at Tailor Slue. This is a good place to start because it’s home to many of the plants and animals typically associated with the everglade. You’ll see many exotic birds and of course a world famous alligators. Don’t worry. There’s a boardwalk that goes across the marsh, so you can look down at the animals in the water from a safe distance. The boardwalk is high enough to give you a great view of the saw grass prairie. From there we’ll head at some other marshy and even jungle-like areas that feature wonderful tropical plant life. For those of you who’d like a close view of the saw grass prairie, you might consider running a canoe sometime during your visit here. However, don’t do this unless you have a very good sense of direction and can negotiate your way through tall grass. We hate to have to come looking for you. You have a good fortune of being here in the winter, the best time of the year to visit. During the spring and summer the mosquitoes will just about to eat you alive. Right now, they are not so bothersome, but you’ll soon want to use an insect repellent.

  托福听力段子10. 理科段子:地理冒险

  Good morning, class. Before we begin today, I would like to address an issue that one of you reminded me of after the last lecture. As you may recall, last time I mentioned that Robert E. Peary was the first person to reach the North Pole. What I neglected to mention was the controversy around Peary’s pioneering accomplishment. In 1910, a committee of the national geographical society examined Commodore Peary’s claim to have reached the North Pole on April 6th’ 1909 and found no reason to doubt him. This judgment was actually confirmed by a committee of theUScongress in 1911. Nevertheless, Peary’s claim was surrounded by controversy. Tins was largely due to the competing claim of Doctor Frederic Cook who told the world he had reached the Pole a four-year earlier. Over the decades Peary was given the benefit of the doubt, but critics persisted in raising questions about his navigation and the distances he claimed to have covered. So the Navigation Foundation spent an additional 12 months of exhaustive examination of documents relating to Peary’s polar expedition. The documents supposed Peary’s claims about the distances he covered. After also conducting an extensive computer analysis of photos taken by Peary at the pole, they concluded that Pierre and his companions did in fact reach the near vicinity of the North Pole on April 6th. 1909. OK, today we’re going to talk about exploration of the opposite end of the world, I assume you all read chapter3 inour text and are now familiar with the names: Emerson and Scott.

  以上是托福听力十大必背段子,大家从这些段子可以看出,托福听力常考话题一般包括校园,历史,艺术,自然等方面,大家也可以从这个方向去积累一些背景词汇和背景知识,从而提高托福听力正确率。重新听并做一次笔记——达到写而有用,只记录研究过的考点信息。

  以上是不同程度考生托福听力强化技巧,其实,无论什么程度的托福考生,在备考的时候都需要坚持不懈,持之以恒,才能取得理想成绩。

必背托福听力十大经典段子

必背托福听力十大经典段子

必背托福听力十大经典段子

考托福不提升单词量,就如同耍流氓

考托福不提升单词量,就如同耍流氓
李岳松】


托福词汇、阅读、口语&写作


   南外仙林“元老级”毕业生,高一暑假结束首考托福115。本科赴瑞典留学,毕业于查尔莫斯理工大学计算机科学专业。曾带出多个阅读28+ 写作25+的学生,善于激发学生的兴趣和积极性,使学生充分参与课堂;阅读和写作这两科中,运用学科之间的融会贯通,重视学生的逻辑思维的培养。

考托福不提升单词量,就如同耍流氓

1.词汇的重要性


  对于任何一门语言来说,词汇就像是盖房子用的砖块儿:光有砖块不一定能盖的了好房子,但是没有砖块是一定盖不了好房子的。

 

  对于留学的标准化考试来说,词汇显的更加重要。阅读中,没有一定的词汇基础,不论去哪里上课,上哪个老师的课,听什么技巧,都是“巧妇难为无米之炊”无力。

   所以,对于有意向出国留学的家长和学生,应当根据自己的情况(水平,准备时间),提前做好计划,在进入正式的语言培训学习之前,把词汇的基础打扎实。


2.单词量提高的周期和过程


a.单词的增长

i:不是线性的:遵循艾宾浩斯记忆曲线;短时间内背的单词,必须通过有计划地多次重复和巩固,才能真正记得——即看到或听到能认识。

ii.而是平台期增长期平台期增长期这样相互交替的增长方式。

b.提高单词量对于提高语言水平的帮助,同样不是线性的并不是说你在现有的比如5k单词量的基础上又掌握了1k单词,你的整体语言水平就能提高20%。真实情况是很可能是,你背了一定单词之后,短期之内语言水平可能一点提高都没有!不要慌,我会在本文第六节(背完单词做什么)里,具体阐述这个现象的原因。

 

3.词根词缀


词根词缀的重要性,现在其实被很多人夸大了。

 

首先,词根词缀,对于理解词义以及揣测生词词义方便,的确有很大帮助。有个说法叫,词根词缀对于英文,就如同偏旁部首对于汉字一样。这是有一定道理的。譬如说’de’这个前缀,我看到de开头的生词(动词或者形容词),第一反应这个词的意向是表示“不好,坏,差,向下,离开”的意思,基本都是带有比较负面情绪的意思,这类词有很多,比如decrease减少,destroy/destruct摧毁,deceive欺骗,decompose分解/降解,despair绝望,等等。

 

但是,同样的,也有很多词,以de开头,不含有这些意向的,我举几个比较常见的:

Delicious好吃的, decide决定, delight高兴,deliberate故意的(liberate解放、释放),等等。

 

另外一个词根词缀不像很多人说的那么“靠谱”或者重要的原因是,有些时候一个词根的拼写可能有两个或者多个含义,比如anti-,一般来说anti表示“反,反对,反抗”,如antibiotics抗生素。但是还有一个词是anticipate,这里的anti也是一个词根,但是它是表示“前面的,之前的”的意思;亦或者两个拼写不一样的词根词缀,可能会表达同一个含义。比如con-com-a-an-,等等,这里不多赘述。

 

其实,刚才讲的anti这个词根,它本身并没有两个意思,它就是表示“反”。而“前面的”这个意思,是用拉丁语介词ante(意思是before,后来变成了英语的词根)来表示的。

 

所以大家可以发现,词根词缀这个东西,实际上是来源于一个纷繁复杂的系统,而且还有点“玄乎”,尤其对于单词量不大的同学来说,上手就用词根词缀去背单词,有时候反而会有些事倍功半。

 

4.针对不同词汇量水平学生

的不同的背单词的策略


a.4000-5000及以下:四级词汇

同学,你如果处于这个阶段,那么你的主要工作就是要在短期之内去接触和记忆大量的单词。记住,是大量的。除此无他。

b.5000以上:六级词汇以及托福词汇(王玉梅/俞敏洪)

一般来说处于这个阶段的同学,如果做过TPO或者参加过托福考试,阅读会在17-22分这个区间左右。或者换一种说法,给你一篇文章,不限定时间,你可能能看懂大意,但是对于细节的解读,以及全篇的脉络结构,还是一脸懵x的。

这时,单词方面你要做的工作就是,针对托福考试的常见词高频词,把它们背的滚瓜烂熟,做到看到就能知道意思,而且这个意思还得是托福的常考用义。比如说account,托福阅读不会考你“账户”这个意思的,考你的是“描述,记述”的意思。

考托福不提升单词量,就如同耍流氓

5.背单词的方法&流程


这里说的方法,是不针对学科的单词记忆方法,也就是说一个单词从不认识到掌握,需要走过的路。

针对不同学科(听说读写),这个方法会略有不同。之后我会提到。


a.发音:我经常跟学生讲,给你一个单词,如果你认得却不会读,那这个单词你几乎等于没背。就像看到一个汉字,你知道意思却不知道怎么读,你如何用这个词跟我交流&我说到这个词你也反应不过来。

b.拼写:因为英文是表音型文字,所以英文单词的拼写很大程度上是和发音紧密相连的。大多数单词是符合发音规则的,也就是说你可以通过规范自己的发音,来帮助自己去记单词。比如之前举得几个例子,decrease, destroy, decompose, anticipate,都是符合发音规则的。当然例外是存在的,比如字母的双写,最简单的例子,happy, 明明一个p就可以发的音,英文非要写两个p,这就是不规则的,得去“死记硬背”,别无他法;再比如ea这个字母块,大家可以发一发下面几组单词,体会一下英文发音的“博meiyouguilv”:

sea/seat/steal/stream/increase, break/steak/great, head/bread/jealous/pleasure/instead/steady,ocean

是不是很诡异

不过话说回来,大部分单词的拼写还是有规律的。根据发音去记单词,事半功倍。

a.释义:在背单词的释义的时候,尤其需要去注意这个单词在托福中常考的意思是什么,比如上文提到的account

这么三个步骤走完之后,一个单词你可以说你认识了,即,看到听到都能反应出来意思。

不同学科单词的背法:

b.阅读词汇(比较典型的是学科专有名词),可以不掌握发音,因为没这个必要。比如Sinosauropteryx中华龙鸟这个词,你一辈子可能也不会说出这个词一次。

c.听力词汇:自然,最重要的就是发音。拼写不太重要因为托福中的听力一般不要求你写出来你听到的单词(除了综合写作的听力部分有可能会有)

d.口语:发音,不用多说;同义词近义词,用来替换。

e. 写作:拼写,不用多说;一个单词的用法。认识一个单词跟会用,其实两码事。比如中文渣如我,很多成语,我是认识的。但是我平常遇到合适的语境能想起来用么?Oh heck no… 英文同理。再一个,因为写作跟口语都是输出型学科,都得掌握同义近义词的替换。


6.背完单词做什么 

(memorize a word -> master it)


其实我在上文中已经多次提到过“知道”和“掌握”这两个概念并且有意地做了区分。

我们拿上一节中写作单词的学习来说:比如significant这个词,相信大家都认识。问题来了,这个词怎么用?能用在哪儿,不能用在哪儿?比如你估计知道significantimportant近义,但是你知不知道它还和noticeable近义?如significant progress = noticeable progress

 

那么,如何从记得、认识一个单词,到掌握一个单词呢老师?

步骤很简单,我这里简要的说一下(不然这个话题我能说一天。。)

多看 (intake)

1. 看一个单词的例句。因为很多时候,单词书上的释义是片面的或者具有误导性的。需要澄清的是,这个并不是写书人的错或者他们偷懒,而是一个单词本身就可能有多个意思,去让一个没多少单词量的学生在背单词初期就掌握一个单词每个意思的具体准确语境,反而会适得其反。

但是你单词量上来了之后,就要着手开始“掌握”了,而知道这个词最贴切的中文意思是掌握的第一步。

2. 看文章(比如但不限于托福的阅读文章,新闻报道)

知道这个单词在一段话中的意思以及作用,你离掌握这个单词又进了一步。

3. 多写:造句

在多次看到过一个单词,以及它出现的位置和所表达的精确含义之后,你需要开始“照葫芦画瓢”了。

4. 尝试在文章中用这个单词:这一点跟第二点同理。会用这个单词构造句子之后,你得开始在段落、文章中运用这个单词。

 

完成了这4步,恭喜你,你掌握了一个新单词!

考托福不提升单词量,就如同耍流氓


考托福不提升单词量,就如同耍流氓
考托福不提升单词量,就如同耍流氓