1. Full name：Richard
2. Address: 27 Station Road,Marton
3. The position of the pain: now he has pain in his lower back(which make him couldn’t sleep in the night) Telephone No.: xxxxxxxx
4. How did he get hurt: lifting up a heavy box
5. The first suggestion: treatments with pain killers
6. The second suggestion: treatments with aspirin and
7. Date of Birth: 25 February, 1975
8. History: when did the pain start to hurt .since 3 days ago
版本B 4 years ago
9. When did it get worse most recently: today afternoon
版本B Doctor’s suggestion: don’t use stick
10. Doctor’s suggestion: do regular exercises
11-13 multiple choice
11.Where is the information board?
A. Reception desk/in the village. B inside the cottage C. On the beach
12.Which sport should be booked in advance?
A. Xxx B. Water-skiing C windsurfing
A shoes B a map of cave C safety helmet
14.Xxx be recommended for families outside traveling to safari park
15.Children are permitted to feed animals
16.Red kangaroo is larger than a person
17.Crocodile/koala can live at least 50 years
游客可以在inland region 做的事情
18.Buy some souvenirs
20.Visit cheese production
21-25 multiple choices
21. Both students agreed with that 为什么那个雕塑奇形怪状的
Greenstone is too hard to be carved (regularly)
22. Why few greenstone was found in archaeological sites
A. It has few introduction
B. It was stolen by tomb raider
C. The owner take care of them
23. New Zealanders used this stone to
A . The most important art style
B. Communicating with their ancestors
C. Maori think it an object cannot be owned by any person
24. What are the distinctions between two types of main hei-m(雕塑）
A. Head size ratio to other parts
B. Xxxhead type
C. The right leg
25. New Maori stone can be recognized because
A . Greenstones’ style
B. Regular hole and the chord
A.Polish stone eyes
D.Form the shape
E.Clean the greenstone
F.Bond it together
26. Sand-E. Form the shape of chord clean
27. Stitch and string-A used for cave details
29. Was x–B make eyes shining
30. Stone-G use this tool to connect its head and body
||IT 科技对教育界的帮助， 一个学校IT 学员引入新的模式
31. First of all, use email failed to interact with each other
32. Great relationship with local economy
33. Mainly apply computer teaching method
34. enjoy communication with this new mode
35. Build up (gain )greater confidence
36. More flexibleapproaches
37. Offer newmaterials
38. New solutions to new problems
39. Develop time management skills
40. Subsidies the student’s supplement of income
||Containing information 5; Y/N/NG5; Summary5
Invention of Marine Chronometer
A It was, as DavaSobel has described a phenomenon: ’the greatest scientific problem of the age ’. The reality was that in the 18th century no one had ever made a clock that could suffer the great rolling and pitching of a ship and the large changes in temperature whilst still keeping time accurately enough to be of any use. Indeed, most of the scientific community thought such clock impossibility. Knowing one’s position on the earth requires two very simple but essential coordinates; rather like using a street map where one thinks in terms of how far one is up/down and how far side to side.
B The longitude is a measure of how far around the world one has come from home and has no naturally occurring base line like the equator. The crew of a given ship was naturally only concerned with how far round they were from their own particular home base. Even when in the middle of the ocean, with no land in sight, knowing this longitude position is very simple in theory. The key to knowing how far around the world you are from home is to know, at that very moment, what time it is back home. A comparison with your local time (easily found by checking the position of the Sun) will then tell you the time difference between you and home, and thus how far round the Earth you are from home.
C Up until the middle of the 18th century, navigation had been unable to determine their position at sea with accuracy and they faced the huge attendant risks of shipwreck or running out of supplies before reaching their destination. The angular position of Moon and other bright stars was recorded in three-hour intervals of Greenwich Time. In order to determine longitude, sailors had to measure the angle between Moon center and a given star- lunar distance – together with height of both planets using the naval sextant. The sailors also had to calculate the Moon’s position if seen from the center of Earth. Time corresponding to Greenwich Time was determined using the nautical almanac. Then the difference between the obtained time and local time served for calculation in longitude from Greenwich The great flaw in this ‘smiple’theory was- how does the sailor know time back home when he is in the middle of an ocean?
D The obvious and again simple answer is that he takes an accurate clock with him, which he sets to home time before leaving. All he has to do is keep it wound up and running, and he must never reset the hands throughout the voyage. This clock then provides ‘home time’, so if, for example, it is midday on board your ship and your ‘home time’clock says that at that same moment it is midnight at home, you know immediately there is a twelve hour time-difference and you must be exactly round the other side of the world, 180 degrees of longitude from home.
E After 1714 when the British government offered the huge sum of $20,000 for a solution to the problem, with the prize to be administered by the splendidly titled Board of Longitude. The Government prize of $20,000 was the highest of three sums on offer for varying degrees of accuracy, the full prize only payable for a method that could find the longitude at sea within a degree. If the solution was to be by timekeeper (and there were other methods since the prize was offered for any solution to the problem), then the timekeeping required to achieve this goal would have to be within 2.8 seconds a day, a performance considered impossible for any clock at sea and unthinkable for a watch, even under the very best conditions.
F It was this prize, worth about £2 million today, which inspired the self-taught Yorkshire carpenter, John Harrison, to attempt a design for a practical marine clock. During the latter part of his early career, he worked with his younger brother James. Their first major project was a revolutionary turret clock for the stables at Brocklesby Park, seat of the Pelham family. Theclock was revolutionary because it required no lubrication. 18th century clock oils were uniformly poor and one of the major causes of failure in clocks of theperiod. Rather than concentrating on improvements to the oil, Harrison designed a clock which didn’t need it. In 1730 Harrison created a description and drawings for a proposed marine clock to compete for the Longitude Prize andwent to London seeking financial assistance. He presented his ideasto Edmond Halley, the Astronomer Royal. Halley referred him to George Graham, the country’s foremost clockmaker. He must have been impressedby Harrison, for Graham personally loaned Harrison money to build a model of his marine clock. It took Harrison five years to build Harrison Number Oneor HI. He demonstrated it to members of the Royal Society who spoke on his behalf to the Board of Longitude. The clock was thefirst proposal that the Board considered to be worthy of a sea trial.
G After several attempts to design a betterment of H1, Harrison believed that the solution to the longitude problem lay in an entirely different design. H4 is completely different from the other three timekeepers. It looks like a very large pocket watch. Harrison’s son William set sail for the West Indies, with H4, aboard the ship Deptford on 18 November 1761. It was a remarkable achievement but it would be some time before the Board of Longitude was sufficiently satisfied to award Harrison the prize.
H John Hadley, an English mathematician, developed sextant, who was a competitor of Harrison at that time for the luring prize. A sextant is an instrument used for measuring angles, for example between the sun and the horizon, so that the position of a ship or aeroplane can be calculated. Making this measurement is known as sighting the object, shooting the object, or taking a sight and it is an essential part of celestial navigation. The angle, and thetime when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart. A sextant can also be used to measure the Lunar distance between the moon and another celestial object (e.g., star, planet) in order to determine Greenwich time which is important because it can then be used to determine the longitude.
I The majority within this next generation of chronometer pioneers were English, but the story is by no means wholly that of English achievement. OneFrench name, Pierre Le Roy of Paris, stands out as a major presence in theearly history of the chronometer. Another great name in the story is that of the Lancastrian, Thomas Earnshaw, a slightly younger contemporary of John Arnold’s. It was Earnshaw who created the final form of chronometer escapement, the spring detent escapement, and finalized the format and the production system for the marine chronometer, making it truly an article of commerce, and a practical means of safer navigation at sea over the next century and half.
The reading Passage has ten paragraphs A-J.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-J, in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
1 introduction of a millman under awards
2 the definition of an important geographical term
3 arival against Harrison’s invention emerged
4 problems of sailor encountered in identifying the position on the sea
5 economic assist from another counterpart
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1
In boxes 6-8 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the sataement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
6 It is with no great effort by sailors to calculate the position when in the center
of the ocean.
7 To determine the longitude, a measurement of distance from moon to a given
star is a must.
8 In theory, by calculating the longitude degrees covered by a sail journey, the
distance between the start and the end points can be obtained.
Questions 9-13 Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.
Hundred years ago，sailors tried to identify their time by checking the sun or stars, butthe trouble was that they did need a reliable clock which showed time of 9And the timekeeper required would be to precisely tell a tangible time lapse confined to 10 : An extraordinary craftsman, Harrison, once created a novel clock which did not rely on 11 to work properly. Later on, competitive mode of12 was another prominent device designed by Hadley, which calculated angle between sun and the earth. Base on Harrison’s effort，Earns haw eventually implement key components for 13 which had been used ever since.
8. NOT GIVEN
9. home time
13. marine chronometer
||Honey Bees in Troubles
||T/F/NG 4， multiple choice 5， sentence matching 5
Honey Bees in Trouble
Can native pollinators fill the gap?
Recently, ominous headlines have described a mysterious ailment, colony collapse disorder (CCD), which is wiping out the honeybees that pollinate many crops. Without honey bees, the story goes, fields will be sterile, economics will collapse, and food will be scarce.
But what few accounts acknowledge is that what’s at risk is not itself a natural state of affairs. For one thing, in the United States, where CCD was first reported and has had its greatest impacts, honeybees are not a native species. Pollination industry has been somewhere between 2.5 million and 3 million in recent years. Meanwhile, American Farmers began using large quantities of organophosphate insecticides, planted large-scale crop monocultures, and adopted ‘clean farming ’practices that scrubbed native vegetation form field margins and roadsides. These practices killed many native bees outright —- they’re as vulnerable to insecticides as any agricultural pest — and made the agricultural landscape inhospitable to those that remained. Concern about these practices and their effects on pollinators isn’t new, in her 1962 ecological alarm cry Silent Spring, Rachel Carson warmed of a ‘Fruitless Fall’ that could result from the disappearance of insect pollinators.
If that ‘Fruitless Fall’ has not yet occurred, it may be largely thanks to the honeybee, which farmers turned to as the ability of wild pollinators to service crops declined. The honeybee has been semi-domesticated since the time of the ancient Egyptians, but it wasn’t just familiarity that determined this choice: the bees’ biology is in many ways suited to the kind of agricultural system that was emerging. For example, honeybee hives can be closed up and moved out of the way when pesticides are applied to a field. The bees are generalist pollinators, so they can be used to pollinate many different crops. And although they are not the most efficient pollinator of every crop, honeybees have strength in numbers, with 20,000 to 100,000 bees living in s single hive. ‘Without a doubt, if there was one bee you wanted for agriculture, it would be the honeybee,’ says Jim Cane, of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The honeybee, in other words, has become a crucial cog in the modern system of industrial agriculture. That system delivers more food, and more kinds of it, to more places, more cheaply than ever before. But that system is also vulnerable, because making a farm field into the photosynthetic equivalent of a factory floor, and pollination into a series of continent-long assembly lines, also leaches out some of the resilience characteristic of natural ecosystems.
Breno Freitas, an agronomist in Brazil, pointed out that in nature such a high degree of specialization usually is a very dangerous game: it works well while all the rest is in equilibrium, but runs quickly to extinction at the least misbalance. In effect, by developing an agricultural system that is heavily reliant on a single pollinator species, we humans have become riskily overspecialized. And when the human-honeybee relationship is disrupted, as it has been by colony collapse disorder, the vulnerability of that agricultural system begins to become clear.
In fact, a few wild bees are already being successfully managed for crop pollination. ‘The problem is trying to provide native bees in adequate numbers on a reliable basis in a fairly short number of years in order to service the crop,’ Jim Cane says, ‘You’re talking millions of flowers per acre in a two-to-three-week time frame, or less, for a lot of crops.’ On the other hand, native bees can be much more efficient pollinators of certain crops than honeybees, so you don’t need as many to do the job. For example, about 750 blue orchard bees pollinate a hectare of apples or almonds, a task that would require roughly 50,000 to 150,000 honeybees. There are bee tinkerers engaged in similar work in many comers of the world. In Brazil, BrenoFreitas has found that Centristariats, the native pollinator of wild cashew, can survive in commercial cashew orchards if growers provide a source of floral oils, such as by interpolating their cashew trees with Caribbean cherry.
In certain places, native bees may already be doing more than they’re getting credit for. Ecologist Rachael Winfree recently led a team that looked at pollination of four summer crops (tomato, watermelon, pepper, and muskmelon) at 29 farms in the region of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Winfree’s team identified 54 species of wild bees that visited these crops, and found that wild bees were the most important pollinators in the system, even though managed honeybees were present on many of the farms, wild bees were responsible for 62 percent of flower visits in the study. In another study focusing specifically on watermelon, Winfree and her colleagues calculated that native bees alone could provide sufficient pollination at 90 percent of the 23 farms studied. By contrast, honeybees alone could provide sufficient pollination at only 78 percent of farms.
‘The region I work in is not typical of the way most food is produced,’ Winfree admits. In the Delaware Valley, most farms and farms fields are relatively small, each farmer typically grows a variety of crops, and farms are interspersed with suburbs and other types of land use which means there are opportunities for homeowners to get involved in bee conservation, too. The landscape is a bee-friendly patchwork that provides a variety of nesting habitat and floral resources distributed among different kinds of crops, weedy field margins, fallow fields, suburban neighborhoods, and semi natural habitat like old woodlots, all at a relatively small scale. In other words, ‘pollinator-friendly’ farming practices would not only aid pollination of agricultural crops, but also serve as a key element in the overall conservation strategy for wild pollinators, and often aid other wild species as well.
Of course, not all farmers will be able to implement all of these practices. And researchers are suggesting a shift to a kind of polyglot agricultural system. For some small-scale farms, native bees may indeed be all that’s needed. For larger operations, a suite of managed bees- with honeybees filling the generalist role and other, native bees pollinating specific crops – could be augmented by free pollination services form resurgent wild pollinators. In other words, they’re saying, we still have an opportunity to replace a risky monoculture with something diverse, resilient, and robust.
Question 27-30 Yes/ No/ Not Given
27. In the United States, farmers use honeybees in a large scale over the past few years.
28. Clean farming practices would be harmful to farmers’ health.
29. The blue orchard bee is the most efficient pollinator for every crop.
30. It is beneficial to other local creatures to protect native bees.
参考答案：Y, NG, N, Y
Choose the correct letter: A, B, C or D.
31. The example of the ‘Fruitless Fall’ underlines the writer’s point about
A needs for using pesticides.
B impacts of losing insect pollinators
C vulnerabilities of native bees
D benefits in building more pollination industries
32. Why can honeybees adapt to the modern agricultural system?
A The honeybees can pollinated more crops efficiently.
B The bees are semi-domesticated since ancient times.
C Honeybee hive can be protected from pesticides.
D The ability of wild pollinators using to serve crops declines.
33. The writer mentions factories and assembly lines to illustrate
A one drawback of the industrialized agricultural system
B a low cost in modern agriculture.
C the role of honeybees in pollination
D what a high yield of industrial agriculture.
34. In the sixth paragraph, Winfree’s experiment proves that
A honeybees can pollinate various crops
B the adoption of different bees in various sizes of agricultural system
C the comparison between the intensive and the rarefied agricultural system
D the reason why farmers can rely on native pollinators
Complete each sentence with the correct ending.
A native pollinators can survive when a specific plant is supplied.
B it would cause severe consequences to both commerce and agriculture.
C Honeybees can not be bred.
D some agricultural landscapes are favorable in supporting wild bees.
E a large scale of honeybees are needed to pollinate.
F an agricultural system is fragile when relying on a single pollinator.
36. Headlines of colony collapse disorder state that
38. Viewpoints of Freitas manifest that
39. Centristarsats is mentioned to exemplify that
40. One finding of the research in Delaware Valley is that
|| Some people think that the government should decide the subject for students to study in university. Others believe that students should be allowed to apply for the subject they prefer. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.