雅思口语,“撩”考官的两大秘密!

雅思口语考官也是人,有感情。打分也包含了主观判断。既然对方也是有血有肉的感情动物,聊起来,必须要“撩”起来。

一、雅思口语三大突破口

口说考试并非“无机可乘”,相反,它的主观性决定了它与生具来的不准确性。从两次口语取得8分的经历中,我总结出雅思口语考试有以下破绽,从而使考生能用于影响考官:

1.雅思口说考试的成绩与你的真实水平是正相关的,但不是成正比的。也就是说,在你毫无准备的情况下,它能够测出你属于哪一个档次的,比如说,5-6分是一个中级档次,7-8分是一个高级档次。但是在同一个档次内部,到底是5分还是6分,7分还是8分,完全取决于两个人的主观博弈-你和考官。

雅思口语,“撩”考官的两大秘密!

2.口语考试的生杀大权掌握在考官手中,雅思口语评分是考官来进行最后的综合评定。所以要“攻城为下,攻心为上”。我的口号是“要把考官当人看”,而不是机器或者大牲口(虽然你心里是这么想的)。口说考试考察的是考生的”沟通”能力,而非单纯的“口语”能力。所以,如果你在考试开始前没有礼貌地和考官打招呼,没有尊重地问问考官的名字,说话的时候表情冷漠,没有笑容,光目呆滞,总是保持一个声调,使人感到乏味,离开考场时忘了对考官说”再见”,总之就是没有给予考官对正常人应有的礼貌和尊重时,你是休想得高分的。

3.“多算胜,少算不胜”。我们不能打无把握之仗,而要在考试前积极备战,从而使雅思口语考试的科学性在你的成绩上体现的微乎其微。因为口语考试采用的是题库制,所以所有的题目都能从网上找到“机经”。你完全可以做到有的放矢的备考。一旦你有了充分的准备,即使自认为口语水平一般的同学,通过一定的技术处理,完全有可能在口语考试中作到“点石成金”,从而取得7分以上的成绩。

二、撩考官四大要素

口说考试要有以下几个要素才能得高分:自信,反应,语音和表情。这就是我说的“现场表现系数”。同时也是学生在雅思口语练习中要注意的地方。

1.自信。你有面对考官的自信吗?比如,你是否会很轻松地反问考官: “What can I call you?”从而给考官的笫一印象就是:这个人肯定口语不错,因为其它考生都不敢和我这样!口说考试不同于一般的和外国人聊天,而是你和一个考官在一间“阴森可怖”的小黑屋里面,你看着他,他看着你。你无权保持沉默,并且你所说的每一句话都将成为承堂证供,因为你面前还摆着一个录音机。你曾有的自信就在你还没有进入口语考场之前的焦急等待中彻底土崩瓦解了。那你就完了,因为你下面的口语考试就会出现技术变形。自信从何而来?准备。如果你对即将考到的题目烂熟于胸,你会不自信吗?如果你已经拥有了大量和外国人练口语的经历,发现他们无非就是一群来中国“潇洒走一回”的流浪汉,你会不自信吗?所以,试问那些一考口语就紧张的同学,你们有谁在考试之前做到了以上这两点呢?

雅思口语,“撩”考官的两大秘密!

2. 反应。要对没有准备过的问题做出敏锐地反应。有个考生第二次考8分的时候被问到一个问题:“Arephysical exercises popular in China?”我立刻不假思索的回答:“Of course they are very popular”,因为如果我在被问到问题之后如果不立刻作出答案,我的fluency就会被扣分;但是如果只说这一句话,同样会被扣分。所以我立刻说:“because there is a National Physical Exercises Programin China. You can see there are a lot of physical exercise equipment in thecommunities, such as…”这时候,可以用举例子进一步丰富我的答案,这是一招灵丹妙药,同时我又可以停顿两秒钟,从而组织语言。但是,我忽然发现我有了大麻烦:那些健身器材的英文名字我一个都不会说!这时我的反应帮助了我。我立刻说:“I can’t explain it very clearly, but…”就这一句话,我就给自己解围了,而且一个but,又可以停顿两秒钟,然后再说:“you can see there are many children and old peopledoing exercises in the morning and in the evening”。万事大吉了!

雅思口语,“撩”考官的两大秘密!

3.语音,包括发音和语气。发音问题,中国人大多数的发音都是“杂音”(英音和美音的杂交产物)。例如:两者最大的差别在于[r]这个音,英音没有这个音。一开始学英音,后来对美音趋之若鹜的同学,结果把idea, campus, famous, because, focus这些没有[r]音的单词都发出这个音来了,却在念four的时候没有[r]音。所以,你要么学美音,有[r]发[r],没[r]不发[r];要么学英音,音节结尾的所有的[r]都不要发出来。由于专门模仿过托福的美音,所以自认为发音过关。但是在口语考试那种精神高度紧张的状态下,什么美音英音的早就抛到脑后了,只要能说清楚即可,哪怕是本能的“杂音”。但是不可否认,我的发音还是帮了大忙,所以如果大家希望的7分以上,清晰的发音是必不可少的。但是更重要的是语气,其实就是最基本的抑扬顿挫而已。但是适度的起伏、停顿、强调和重读对于考官是有天壤之别的。有太多的考生在平时说英语的时候,永远是一个调的,给人的感觉是boring。换个位置思考,如果你是考官,一个周末要面对几十个考生,但是每个人都用一个腔调和你说话,你是不是想自杀?所以大家平时在准备的时候,就要刻意训练。首先,你想一想在说汉语时,在什么地方会有抑扬顿挫?其次,你可以用mp3把你的声音录下来,自己听听,再让周围人听听,感觉一下是否觉得舒服。

雅思口语,“撩”考官的两大秘密!

4.表情。前面说过,你是在和考官“交流”,而不是在“独白”。那么你就要有丰富的面部表情。最好就是微笑。我在考试中始终保持微笑,并且还有自然的大笑。如何影响考官?就是用你的微笑带动他或她笑。这位考生第一次考8分的时候,在Part 3被问到:“Have you learned any other languages ?”说:“Yes, I have learned some Russian words.”于是顺口说了一句我背得烂熟的俄语长句。那位女考官听到之后,立刻笑了起来。一看她笑了,宜将剩勇追穷寇,不可沽名学霸王!要让她“回眸一笑百媚生,六宫粉黛无颜色”。于是立刻满脸笑容地补充道:“It means I want to invite you to lunch.”那位年轻女考官立刻笑得前仰后合的。可巧那是个周日的上午10点多,也许她还以为我对她有什么企图呢!但是冰冻三尺非一日之寒,若不是他从Part 1就开始用笑容打动她的“芳心”,又怎能换来这样一次“爆笑”呢?

就这样,我轻松“撩”到了7.5分。当然,大家要把握好度,千万别走极端了。我担心啊,有的“天真”的孩子看完后,考前打扮得花枝招展、坦胸露背,考试中满嘴seduce的词汇。这样让考官不舒服,你也就拿不了高分。记住,要用气质、自信和流利的英语“撩”考官,而不是用低俗的方式“试探”考官。

雅思口语,“撩”考官的两大秘密!

每日雅思积累“背三句”-孩子用电脑

每日雅思积累“背三句”-孩子用电脑

In today’s world, computers are an essential part of everyday life and children who use the computer daily are actually developing a critical skill for future success.

讲解:

  1. an essential part of … …中非常重要/不可缺少的一个部分

  2. daily 每天

  3. develop a … skill 培养一个…技能

  4. critical 至关重要的

When I was in university, students brought their laptops to class to take notes, do research and exchange information. They wrote assignments, created presentations and developed databases.

讲解:

  1. laptop 笔记本电脑

  2. take notes 记笔记

  3. do research 做研究

  4. exchange 交换

  5. write assignments 写作业

  6. database 数据库、资料库

Corporations will expect prospective job applicants to already possess these critical job skills.

讲解:

  1. corporation 公司

  2. expect 期待

  3. prospective 想要成为的、预期的、有希望的 job applicant 工作申请者

  4. possess 具有、具备

每日雅思积累“背三句”-孩子用电脑

雅思写作考生常犯的7个语法错误!—雅托邦

雅思写作是考生得分比较比较高的科目,但是也有些考生常常因为犯了一些写作方面的错误而导致分数变低。别人的高分项在你这里却变成了低分项,一比下来就比别人差了很多。针对这些在这里雅托邦给雅思考生们分享7个常犯的雅思写作错误。考生们看一下自己是不是会犯这些错误,有的话最好尽早改过来。

雅思写作考生常犯的7个语法错误!—雅托邦

雅思写作常犯错误1 — 语法的前后不一致

有些考生在写作时总是出现语法前后不一致的低级错误。

比如:When one have enough money, she can do anything she want to do.

这句话就犯了主谓不一致的错误。one是单数,所以后边的have应该改成has;She 也是第三人称单数,所以后边的want应改为wants。虽然这些很简单,但是还是有考生一不留神就犯了这个低级错误。所以在雅思写作过程中一定要细心。

正确:When one has money, she can do anything she wants (to do).

雅思写作常犯错误2 — 中式思维

由于中外思维方式的差异,考生总是会用中国式思维来写作,这种中式思维放在中国是对的,用在英语中可就错了。

比如:There are many ways we get to know the outside world.

单纯看“there are many ways”和“we get to know the outside world”,这两个句子本身并没有问题,但是我们不能把两个句子连起来,一连起来就犯了中式思维的错误了。

正确:There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world.

雅思写作考生常犯的7个语法错误!—雅托邦

雅思写作常犯错误3 — 句子随意添加

一般都是烤鸭们写完了一句话之后,咦,不对,少写了一些东西,得加上去,然后就出现了这样的句子。

有些雅思考生会有这种情况,写完一句话,然后发现少写了一些东西,于是又加了上去,最后往往就会出现以下句子的类似错误:

There are many ways to get the news. For example,by TV, radio, newspaper and so on.

像这个句子,本来是只写了There are many ways to get the news.然后发现还要再写一些,于是又写了For example,by TV, radio, newspaper and so on.但是考生没注意到news后面加了标点“.”表示这句话结束了。For也大写,这样就成了两个句子了。所以正确形式应该是这样的:

There are many ways to get the news, for example, by TV, radio, newspaper and so on .

雅思写作常犯错误4 — 乱用词性

这是雅思考生在写作时犯的最多的错误。具体表现为:介词当动词用;形容词当副词用;名词当动词用等。

比如:No one can negative the importance of money.

这里就犯了词性的错误,把形容词negative错当动词用。应该用动词的deny。

正确:No one can deny the importance of money.

雅思写作常犯错误5 — 指代不清

比如:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.

这个让中国人来看相信不会有问题,但是你用在英语中是想让考官来和你猜拳吗?

正确:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.

雅思写作考生常犯的7个语法错误!—雅托邦

雅思写作常犯错误6 — 修饰词放错位子

这个还是因为中式思维犯的错。但是英语与汉语不同,当你把一个修饰词放错了位置,可能就会影响整个句子的意思了。

比如:He believe him can do it well and he will better know the world outside the world.

这里better就明显放错了位置,正确的做法应该是放在句子最后。

正确:he will know the world outside the world better.

雅思写作常犯错误7 — 用词不当

比如:The increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution.

显然,把“obstacles(障碍,障碍物)”当做“substance(物质)”使用了。还有把“the increasing use(不断增加的使用)”当做“abusive use(滥用)”错用了。

正确:The abusive use of chemical substance in agriculture also makes pollution.

这些都是雅思考生在进行雅思写作时常犯的几个语法错误,这些错误很容易给考官造成理解上的错误,从而给考生的雅思写作分数带来不好的影响。考生们要格外注意不要犯这些错误。

以上就是雅思写作考生常犯的7个语法错误!—雅托邦 的内容。如果你有更好的方法建议,可以在文章后面留言哦!

学英语在于生活中的每个积累和每份坚持!the drop of rain makes a hole in the stone(滴水穿石头)

又到一年换题季,5月最新雅思官方新题一览

根据考生和老师总结,

已经出现的疑似口语新题有以下这些哟

1.Describe a recent change that happened on you.

You should say

When it happened

Where it happened

What happened

And explain how you felt about it

2.Describe a sport you like to watch.

You should say

What it is

Where you like to watch it

Whom you like to watch it with

And explain why you like to watch it ?

3.Describe a conversation with a stranger

You should say

Where you did it

When you did it

What did you say

And explain how you felt about it

4.Describe a leisure activity near or on the sea

You should say

What it is

What should you prepare

Why you have to prepare

And explain how you feel about it

5.Describe an English lesson you had

You should say

When it was

What it was about

What happened

And explain why you liked it

6. Describe a something free (movie/meal)

You should say

What it is

When it happened

Who gave it to you

And explain how you felt about it

7.Describe a city/town which you went

You should say

Where it is

When you went there

Why you liked it

And explain how you felt about it

8. Describe a big company

You should say

What it is

How many employees work there

What its work

And explain what do you think about it

9.Describe someone that helped you

You should say

When and where it happened

Who the person is

What he/she did

And explain how you felt about it

10.Describe a kind of plant or vegetable

You should say

What it is

How you first learned about this plant

Where it grows

And explain whether you like it or not

11.Describe a person who gave a clever solution to a problem

You should say

Who the person is

What problem it is

How he/she solved it

And explain why you think it clever

12.Describe a couple you know who have a happy marriage

You should say

Who are they

How long their marriage is

Why do you think they are happy

And explain what do you think of them

13.Describe an invention which changed the world.

You shouldsay

What itis

How itchanged the world

How popularit is in different ages

And explainhow you feel about it

14.Describe your favourite piece of clothing

What itlooks like

How oftendo you wear it

Where youget it

And explainwhy it is your favourite clothing

15.Describe your favourite TV drama series

You shouldsay

What nameis it

Who is themain actor/actress

What it isabout

And explainwhy you like it

16.Describea thing that you want to do while never do

You shouldsay

What thingit is

Why youcannot do it

Why youwant to do it

And explainwhether you will do it in the future

17.Describe an occasion when you had a cake which was special.You should say

What kind of cake it was

Whom the cake was bought for

What was the occasion

And explain why you consider it special

18.Describe a place with lots of people

You should say

When you went there

What you did there

Whom you went with

And explain how you felt about ita

19.Describe an experience of moving to a new house/school.You should say:

When it happened

Where it happened

Why you had to do it

And explain how you felt about it

20. Describe a piece of good news heardfrom others.You should say

What it is

Whom you heard from

Why it is good

And explain how you felt about it.

21.Describe your favorite book.You should say

What the book is

When you read it

What it is about

And explain how you felt about it

22. Describe a trip on bike.You should say

When it happened

Where you went

What happened

And explain how you felt about it

23.Describe an occasion that everyone laughed .

You should say

When and where it happened

What you did there

What happened

And explain why everyone laughed

24.Describe a statue or work of art

You should say

When you (first) saw this work of art

Where you saw it

What it looked like

And explain your feelings about this workof art when you saw it.

25.Describe a change you have made

You should say

What this change is

When you started this change

Why you made this change

And explain how this change affected you

26.Describe a thing you remember well inyour childhood.You should say

What it was

Who was involved in this event

What you did in this event

And explain why it made you feel happy

27.Describe a challenging experience

You should say

When it happened

Where it happened

What happened

And explain how you felt about it

当然了,

很多1-4月份的题目,

也会保留在5-8月的题库中哟

比如以下这些:

1. Describe an important event in history in your country.You should say:

What it was

When and where it happened

How you know about it

And explain why it is important

2. Describe an interesting neighbor

You shouldsay:

Who this person is

How you know this person

What he/she likes to do

How often you see this person

How you get along with this person

And explain why you think he/she is interesting

3. Describe a time that you waited for something special.You shouldsay:

When and where it happened

What you waited for

Why you waited for it

How long you waited and what you did while waiting

And explain how you felt about it

4. Describe a plan (that is not related to work or study) in your life.You should say:

What it is

When and why you made the plan

What the first step of your plan is

How you will carry out the plan

And explain how you will feel after you achieve it

5. Describe an experience when you spent time with a child.You shouldsay:

Who this child was

When, where and why you spent time with the child

What you did together

And explain how you felt about it

6. Describe a/an new/exciting activity that you tried for the first time.You should say:

What it was

When and where you did this activity

Who you did this activity with

Whether it was difficult or easy

And explain how you feel about it or why it is exciting

7. Describe a holiday you would like to take in the future.You should say:

When and where you would like to go

Who you would like to go with

What you would like to do on this holiday

And explain why you would like to take the holiday

8. Describe a newly-opened shop in your hometown

You should say:

What shop it is and what it sells

When it opened

Where it is

Who like to go there

And explain how you feel about this shop

9. Describe a family member that you are proud of

You should say:

Who this person is

What he/she did make you proud

Where and when it happened

And explain why you are proud of him/her

10. Describe a time when you were not allowed to use your mobile phone.You should say:

What you did

When and where it happened

Why you were not allowed

And explain how you felt about and dealt with it

11. Describe a special meal you would like to have in the future.You should say:

When and where you would like to have it

Who you would like to have it with

What you would like to have

And explain why it is special and why you would like to have it

12. Describe a quiet place that you like.You should say:

Where it is

When you go there

What you do there

And explain why it is a quiet place and why you like it

13. Describe an occasion that you received good service from a shop ora restaurant.You should say:

What the service was

When and where it happened

Whom you were together with

How you felt about it

And explain why you think it was good service

14. Describe a kind of foreign food that you have had

You should say:

What it was

Where you had it

When you had it

And explain how you felt about it

15. Describe a decision made by others that you disagreed with.You should say:

What it was

When and where it happened

Who made the decision

Whether you told him/her that you disagreed

And explain why you disagreed

16. Describe a book that you would like to read again.You should say:

What it is

What it is about

When and where you read it for the first time

And explain why you would like to read it again

17. Describe a café which you have been to

You should say:

Where it is

What it looks like and what it serves

When you like to go there

What you do there

And explain why you like or dislike it

18. Describe an interesting house or apartment that you visited.You should say:

Where it was

Whose house/apartment it is

What the house/apartment looks like

When and why you went there

And explain why it is interesting

19. Describe a family member who has had important influence on you.You should say:

Who this person is

What kind of person he/she is

What influence this person has on you

When and where it happened

And explain how you feel about the influence

20. Describe a well-paid job you will be good at in the future.You should say:

What it is

Where you can get this job

What skills or qualities are required by thejob

Why it is well-paid

And explain why you will be good at it

21. Describe a time when you forgot an appointment

You should say:

When and where it happened

What the appointment was for

Why you forgot the appointment

And explain how you felt about it

22. Describe an enjoyable day/experience in the countryside.You should say:

When and where you went

What you did there

Who went there with you

And explain why you felt enjoyable

23. Describe two people who are from the same family.You should say:

Who they are

What they look like

Whether they are similar in appearance,personality, or…

How you know about them

And explain how they get along with each other and how you feel about them

24. Describe a famous person that you are interested in.You should say:

Who this person is

How you know about this person

What this person is famous for

And explain why you are interested in this person

25.Describe the politest person you know.You should say:

Who this person is

How you know about him/her

What he/she likes to do

And explain why you think he/she is the politest person

26. Describe a famous/popular place where people like to go swimming.You should say:

Where it is

What it looks like

Who like to go there and what they do there

And explain why people like to go there

27. Describe a kind of weather that you like.

You should say:

What it is

What you usually do on a day of this weather

How this weather affects you

And explain why you like this weather

28. Describe an interesting speech or talk that you have heard.You should say:

What it was about

Who delivered the speech/talk

When and where you heard the speech/talk

And explain why you think it is interesting

UKEC官网:http://www.ukec.com/

UKEC官方wechat:ukec_cn

wechat小号:ukec_xiaoying

加拿大留学雅思要求以及专业院校排名

加拿大留学雅思要求以及专业院校排名

谈到加拿大,家长和学生应该都有所了解,其拥有最完整的教育体系,是加拿大目前高等教育最高水准国家之一,所以许多家长都把孩子送到加拿大读商科、自然学科、理工科等。这也是最热门的专业,下面咱们来简单的说说这个专业的学校排名及雅思成绩要求。

首先是加拿大院校商科专业比较好的几所院校:西安大略大学、约克大学、多伦多大学。这三所加拿大的国际生首选,因为这三所是除了美国以外的全球商科排名的前十院校。雅思6分以上。

其次是自然科学,加拿大自然科学最好的几所大学是:多伦多大学,不包含美国高校其排名为第6名和包含美国高校其排名为第24名、UBC大学不包含美国高校其排名为第8名和包含美国高校其排名为第36名。雅思成绩要求6分以上。

最后说说加拿大理工科,加拿大滑铁卢大学是理工科学生最向往的大学,其有世界上最好的数学和计算机专业。其次是麦克马斯特大学,他们的工程专业排名都可以进入北美前10名,也是非常厉害的。麦吉尔大学和皇后大学也毫不逊色,前者素有“北方哈佛”之称,后者有加拿大的普林斯顿之称,雅思分数都需达到6分以上。

加拿大今天就介绍这么多,更多详情欢迎咨询武汉教育国际交流合作中心汉口部

雅思口语Part1/2 素材:7秒钟的记忆

雅思口语Part1/2 素材:7秒钟的记忆

雅思口语Part1/2素材库:forget things

When I was in primary school, everyone called me “Miss./Mr. Forgetful” because I always forgot to bring my textbooks or homework. Well, it’s a bit embarrassing to say that.

注释:

primary school 小学

Miss/Mr. Forgetful 健忘小姐/先生

a bit embarrassing 有点尴尬

Um, there are a few tips, but the most effective one is to write a note and stick it on your door. When you go out, you can see it and double check.

注释:

a few tips 一些小贴士

the most effective 最有效的

write a note 写一张便条

stick it on your door 贴在门上

Double check 再检查一遍

雅思口语Part1/2 素材:7秒钟的记忆

5.16芳姐雅思听力真经,原题重现~

5.16芳姐雅思听力真经

5.16芳姐雅思听力真经,原题重现~

31. army 军队

32. safety 安全

33. learning 学习

34. reasons 原因

35. trust 信任

36. teamwork 团队合作

37. leaders 领导

38. writing 写作

39. plans 计划

40. eye-contact 眼神交流

同义替换——选自C10T2S3

原题重现:

Which do the speakers say are the TWO reasons why Heyerdahl went to live on an island?

A to examine ancient carvings

B to experience an isolated place

C to formulate a new theory

D to learn survival skills

E to study the impact of an extreme environment

知识点!知识点!知识点!

23~24. extreme environment / harsh weather

isolated / remote, wild

KEYS 23~24 B&E

5.16芳姐雅思听力真经,原题重现~

2017年5月13日雅思真题回忆

5月份的第二场雅思考试已经结束了,本文为大家带来的是2017年5月13日的雅思真题的具体内容,正在备考5月份考试的小伙伴们尽快关注吧。

2017年5月13日雅思真题回忆

雅思听力真题回忆:

Section One

场景:课外活动

题型:配对4,填空6

内容概述:一个女生打电话咨询艺术活动

配对4 :

1. E更改了时间

2. A场地原因活动取消

3. D活动免费,因为有赞助商

4. G卖光了

5.关于她的新的opera

6.场地 theater

7.价格30

8.地点一library

9.地点二Town hall

10.地点三studio

Section Two

场景:银行购物

题型:单选6,双选题5选2两个

内容概述:加拿大买房的建议

单选5:

11. A Closing Fee 里面包含了 Inception Fee

12. B 每个月都要买的保险insurance

13. A

14. C街区一的特点适合家庭

15. B街区二的特点有很多步行公园

16. A街区三的特点,适合larger bugdet预算充足的人

17. C公寓的两个缺点

18. D

19. A condo这种房型的两个有点

20. E

Section Three

场景:作业讨论

题型:填空10

内容概述:考古课程的介绍

21.所有课都可以和考古学课结合在一起除了 Classical History

22. compulsory 是必修课

23.第一个module 的名字 Object Matters

24.课程的一个步骤classification

25.考核是以course work为标准

26.第二个module 的名字 Towns and Cities

27.考核以oral exam为标准

28.第三个module探讨了城市的origins

29.考核以seminars

30.location稍后会公布出来

Section Four

场景:科普物品

题型:填空10

内容概述:英国的极限运动发展

填空10 :

31.极限运动也叫做lifestyle sports

32.随着equipment的提高,受伤越来越少

33. traditional sports玩的人越来越少

34. Factory workers 发明的

35.贵族发明了golf

36.年轻人喜欢极限运动是因为regulations比较少

37.年轻人不喜欢固定时间的training

38.极限运动可以锻炼克服fear

39.越来越entertainment

40.会降低他们的 sense of community

雅思阅读真题回忆:

Passage One

题材:经济

题目:Butterflies farms : new resources or zoos

A

THERE’S no animal that symbolises rainforest diversity quite as spectacularly as the tropical butterfly. Anyone lucky enough to see these creatures flitting between patches of sunlight cannot fail to be impressed by the variety of theirpatterns. But why do they display such colourful exuberance? Until recently, this was almost as pertinent a question as it had been when the 19th-century naturalists, armed only with butterfly nets and insatiable curiosity, battled through the rainforests. These early explorers soon realised that although some of the butterflies’ bright colours are there to attract a mate, others are warning signals. They send out a message to any predators: “Keep off, we’re poisonous.” And because wearing certain patterns affords protection, other species copy them. Biologists use the term “mimicry rings” for these clusters of impostors and their evolutionary idol.

B

But here’s the conundrum. “Classical mimicry theory says that only a single ring should be found in any one area,” explains George Beccaloni of the Natural History Museum, London. The idea is that in each locality there should be just the one pattern that best protects its wearers. Predators would quickly learn to avoid it and eventually all mimetic species in a region should converge upon it. “The fact that this is patently not the case has been one of the major problems in mimicry research,” says Beccaloni. In pursuit of a solution to the mystery of mimetic exuberance, Beccaloni set off for one of the megacentres for butterfly diversity, the point where the western edge of the Amazon basin meets the foothills of the Andes in Ecuador. “It’s exceptionally rich, but comparatively well collected, so I pretty much knew what was there, says Beccaloni.” The trick was to work out how all the butterflies were organised and how this related to mimicry.”

C

Working at the Jatun Sacha Biological Research Station on the banks of the Rio Napo, Beccaloni focused his attention on a group of butterflies

called ithomiines. These distant relatives of Britain’s Camberwell Beauty are abundant throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean.

They are famous for their bright colours, toxic bodies and complex mimetic relationships. “They can comprise up to 85 per cent of the individuals in a mimicry ring and their patterns are mimicked not just by butterflies, but by other insects as diverse as damselflies and true bugs,” says Philip DeVries of the Milwaukee Public Museum’s Center for Biodiversity Studies.

D

Even though all ithomiines are poisonous, it is in their interests to evolve to look like one another because predators that learn to avoid one species

will also avoid others that resemble it. This is known as Miillerian mimicry. Mimicry rings may also contain insects that are not toxic, but gain protection by looking likes a model species that is: an adaptation called Batesian mimicry. So strong is an experienced predator’s avoidance response that even quite inept resemblance gives some protection. “Often there will be a whole series of species that mimic, with varying degrees of verisimilitude, a focal or model species,” says John Turner from the University of Leeds. “The results of these deceptions are some of the most exquisite examples of evolution known to science.” In addition to colour, many mimics copy behaviours and even the flight pattern of their model species.

E

But why are there so many different mimicry rings? One idea is that species flying at the same height in the forest canopy evolve to look like one another. “It had been suggested since the 1970s that mimicry complexes were stratified by flight height,” says DeVries. The idea is that wing colour patterns are camouflaged against the different patterns of light and shadow at each level in the canopy, providing a first line of defence against predators.” But the light patterns and wing patterns don’t match very well,” he says. And observations show that the insects do not shift in height as the day progresses and the light patterns change. Worse still, according to DeVries, this theory doesn’t explain why the model species is flying at that particular height in the first place.

F

“When I first went out to Ecuador, I didn’t believe the flight height hypothesis and set out to test it,” says Beccaloni.”A few weeks with the collecting net convinced me otherwise. They really flew that way.” What he didn’t accept, however, was the explanation about light patterns. “I thought, if this idea really is true, and I can work out why, it could help explain why there are so many different warning patterns in any one place. Then we might finally understand how they could evolve in such a complex way.” The job was complicated by the sheer diversity of species involved at Jatun Sacha. Not only were there 56 ithomiine butterfly species divided among eight mimicry rings, there were also 69 other insect species, including 34 day-flying moths and a damselfly, all in a 200-hectare study area. Like many entomologists before him, Beccaloni used a large bag-like net to capture his prey. This allowed him to sample the 2.5 metres immediately above the forest floor. Unlike many previous workers, he kept very precise notes on exactly where he caught his specimens.

G

The attention to detail paid off. Beccaloni found that the mimicry rings were flying at two quite separate altitudes. “Their use of the forest was quite distinctive,” he recalls. “For example, most members of the clear-winged mimicry ring would fly close to the forest floor, while the majority of the 12 species in the tiger-winged ring fly high up.” Each mimicry ring had its own characteristic flight height.

H

However, this being practice rather than theory, things were a bit fuzzy. “They’d spend the majority of their time flying at a certain height. But they’d also spend a smaller proportion of their time flying at other heights,” Beccaloni admits. Species weren’t stacked rigidly like passenger jets waiting to land, but they did appear to have a preferred airspace in the forest. So far, so good, but he still hadn’t explained what causes the various groups of ithomiines and their chromatic consorts to fly in formations at these particular heights.

I

Then Beccaloni had a bright idea. “I started looking at the distribution of ithomiine larval food plants within the canopy,” he says. “For each one I’d record the height to which the host plant grew and the height above the ground at which the eggs or larvae were found. Once I got them back to the field station’s lab, it was just a matter of keeping them alive until they pupated and then hatched into adults which I could identify.”

题型:判断7 ,多项选择题3 ,选择题4

文章主旨:文章讲了一个蝴蝶农场带的出现并能带来经济效益,对比了60年代蝴蝶农场在英国的兴起和衰落,并从几位3位专家分析了蝴蝶农场经济发展出现的问题:选址,玻璃房的设置,样本的丰富度,该市场市场缺少法律等问题。原文后三段主要是围绕2个科学家对于蝴蝶农场发展中的个人态度和提出的问题以及建议。

判断7

1.butterflies farmers are popular in the tropic areas F 原文只第一段定位 只是提及热带地区有很多蝴蝶however转折的是蝴蝶农场在英国等等国家很人民也可以通过蝴蝶农场看蝴蝶。

2.the butterflies farms are in the declining trend F 原文说这种经济起初能很快赚钱但持续时间很短并后文分析提出了原因。

3.rare species are more difficult to breed than many others T 原文 些少数品种不适用玻璃房老师想飞出去。

4.many butterflies spices have a longer life expectancy than in wild T 原文说倒数第四段提及in wild there are more predators。

5.many butterflies may cause health problems T 原文最后一P进是及及 health issues。

6. the butterflies farms market needs Act. T 原文最后一段 M.collins 专加 的建议是指定法律规范蝴蝶市场。

7. 更具某专家:butterflies specimen should not be posted T not be posted定位倒数第二段

多项选择题3

8-10.蝴蝶农场失败的原因

A : not enough specimen on display

C:lack of educational phase

D: without appropriate breeding environment

单选:11-14

题目分别是让我们选出几个专家对蝴蝶农场的建议和发展问题的正确选项(答案在倒数后四段)

ABDB

Passage Two

题材:社会

题目:A new look for Talbot Park

题型:配对6,细节填空题3 ,人物配对3 文章主旨*

第一段:概述了 Talbot park这个地区的新的漂亮的城市面貌;

第二段:作者回忆几十年前这个地区的面貌:每家每户有个大大的院子,孩子在草地上嘻嘻做游戏,没有暄嚣和犯罪,一片祥和安逸的环境;

第三段:转折,然而随着high density在这个地区所产生的一系列的负面影响和问题,院子越来越小,犯罪越来越多,晚上也越来越吵闹。以前的好的景色和房屋也受到损坏…等问题;

第四段:人们提出重新建造talbot park的方案,并列出了几点如何规划和重新建造这个地区的建议;

第五段:分析了这个地区的居民的种族构成和设计要求;

第六段:这个地区和national are地区相比存在的financial hardship;

第七段:一个L community manager提出的我们要通过supervision and regulations的手段提高community的环境保证这个地区人们能 有一个好的 neighborhoods;

第八段:某D 姓的community manager 说要organize community增加community integrity ,保安走在路上能叫上当地居民的名字来。

主旨配对:15-20

VI: list中的mix races和design定位第四段

IV :分析了设计新城的建议

III : list中的high density定位第三段分析了该城现在存在的问题

I:list中的unexpected design表示作者对新城的感叹定位第一段

VII : supervision and regulations 定位

II:list的原句中出现the past experience定位原文第二段回顾以前生活方式

细节填空3 : 21-23

Higher density of accommodation may make the problems return.

A series of approaches could be taken on solving these problems.

Supervision and regulations are required to create the community.

人物配对:24-26

24: M专家的建议:B

25: D 专家:F more community activities 定位

26: L 管理者:C Supervision and regulations 定位

Passage Three

题材:科学

题目:looking for inspiration

题型:配对7 ,填空3 ,判断4

文章主旨:文章主要讲了人的什么会影响人的inspiration以及一些测试人inspiration的方法并且分析了几位专家对于人的哪些方面会影响到 人的 inspiration。

主旨配对

27-33. ACBDEF

填空:34-36 :

人的大脑一般很活跃除了有些dreaming的时候,某专家的理论对IQ的研究分为 2 个部分:inspiration and elaboration Creativity是区分上面两个过程的关键。

判断题:37-40

T

T:语言会影响人的inspiration

F

T

雅思写作真题回忆:

小作文

题型:地图

题目 The diagrams shows a museum and its surroundings in 1990 and 2010.

Describe the difference and compare them if possible.

相似考试日期2015-10-08

2017年5月13日雅思真题回忆

大作文

题题材:社会类

题目 In some countries, it’s possible to buy a wide variety of foods transported from other countries. To what extent the benefits outweigh its drawbacks.

雅思考试易混淆词汇第一波,就说你背单词痛不痛~

雅思考试易混淆词汇第一波,就说你背单词痛不痛~

雅思词汇混淆可以分为词意、形近以及音近三种

你分得清么?记忆单词的那些痛难以言表哦~

看看今天为大家带来的第一波雅思考试易混淆词汇

雅思考试易混淆词汇第一波,就说你背单词痛不痛~

雅思考试易混淆词汇第一波,就说你背单词痛不痛~

加入微博话题#有一种痛叫做背单词#

说说你在背单词的时候,遇到了哪些困难?

也许还会有意想不到的背单词痛苦故事哦~

雅思考试易混淆词汇第一波,就说你背单词痛不痛~

5GB雅思听说读写学习资料——免费送!

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内容简介

雅思考试(IELTS)是什么?它是由三家机构组织联合创办的一个英语能力测试系统,这三个权威机构非别是:

  • 剑桥大学考试委员会外语考试部

  • 英国文化协会

  • IDP教育集团共同管理

什么人士需要考雅思呢?为打算到使用英语的国家学习、工作或定居的人。当然,如果你既不要出国留学,也不要移民,但你还是能考好这个考试,拿到高分,那你在职场上也是一个香饽饽啊!现在很多外企招聘要求上都会要求雅思成绩,因为他是对一个人英语的听说读写四方面全方面考评的一个考试,很有说服力。因此,他也比四六级难很多!

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